LLS 100 mideterm

  1. Labels of "hispanics" and Latina/os
    The label of Hispanic is person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish speaking origin. Where the label for a Latina/o are persons or communities of Latin American origin regardless of languages, race, ethnicity, gender, or citizenship.
  2. Latino ethnic consciousness
    Develops from the cultural and structural similarities of two or more Spanish-speaking groups. Also a response to experiences of social inequality.
  3. Racial Formation
    Sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed.
  4. U.S. Racial Project
    Explanation of the dynamics between racial groups. Also an effort to organize and distribute resources along particular racial lines.
  5. Manifest Destiny
    Westward expansion a "divine right" it was believed to be inevitable.
  6. Monroe Doctrine
    "Americas for the Americas" No toleration of European nation's interference to the nations in the Americas
  7. 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Ended the Mexican-American War. Treaty of peace. Forced migration/annexation of populations. 6 million "new" Mexican residents of the U.S. Economic consequences: Previous Mexican land owners lost their land due to the lack of citizenship in the U.S.
  8. 1898 Spanish American War
    Fought over Cuba's and Puerto Rico's independence from Spain, but basically took over those countries.
  9. Territorial Expansion
    Buying territories for the U.S.'s benefit. Ex. Panama Canal or Puerto Rico
  10. Differential Citizenship
    Unequal treatment where it depended on race, ethnicity, gender, etc.
  11. Bracero Program
    Allowed immigrants from Mexico to work in the U.S. for a limited time.
  12. Foraker Act 1900
    Declared Puerto Rico a U.S. Territory and appointed top administrators. Forbade Puerto Rico to sign treaties, changed their currency, and made the U.S. take over their crops/agriculture
  13. Jones Act 1917
    Placed democracy in Puerto Rico. Superseded Foraker  Act Permanent Citizenship
  14. Operation Bootstrap
    Turned Puerto Rico into an industrial economy, destroying their agriculture. Pushing Puerto Ricans into the U.S.
  15. Nicaraguan Adjustment Act 1997 (NACARA)
    Allowed Nicaraguans and Cubans to become permanent legal citizens of the U.S. This was a relief for the communist countries.
  16. Wet Foot/Dry Foot Policy
    If you came from Cuba, you can only become a citizen if you flew to the U.S. and not come on a boat.
  17. U.S. immigration policies
    Bracero Program, Operation Wetback 1954, Brain Drain, Immigration Act of 1965
  18. Political Asylum and U.S. immigration policy
    Refugee Act of 1980, NACARA
  19. Unfriendly/Friendly U.S. countries
    • Unfriendly: Nicaragua, Cuba
    • Friendly: Puerto Rico, Panama, El Salvador, Guatemala
  20. Influence of "Urban Renewal"
    Gentrification in Chicago, Racial Segregation, policing and racialized Urban Planning
  21. Cuban Relief Act 1959
    Allowed Cubans to become U.S. citizens as long as they don't go back into their "bad" (communist) country
  22. Operation Wetback 1954
    sent people back that weren't initially allowed in the U.S.
  23. Brain Drain
    Demand for higher educated people, allowed them citizenship. These people usually consisted of Doctors
  24. Immigration Act of 1965
    Restricted Family reunion for people originally U.S. citizens
Card Set
LLS 100 mideterm
LLS 100 study guide for the first midterm