Bio Exam 2 (Charts: Fungus: Deutermycetes and Basidiomycetes

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  1. Deuteromycetes: Structure
  2. Deuteromycetes: Reproduction
    • Asexual
    • Haploid nuclei that are genetically different occasionally fuse, leading to recombination and a new nucleus
    • -          The restoration of the haploid condition does not involve meiosis
    • Whole sequence (plasmogamy, karyogamy, and haploidization)= parasexuality 
  3. Deuteromycetes: Relevance
    • Penicillium
    • -some cheeses
    • -antibiotics (Penicillin)
    • -food spoilage
    • Aspergillus
    • -spoilage
    • -attacks peanuts
    • -produces aflatoxins
    • One group produces ring worm and other fungal skin diseases
  4. Basidiomycetes: Structure
    • Produce basidiospores, which are borne outside the basidium
    • Mycelium is always septate,, but the septa are perforate with a barrel-shaped margin called a dolipore with membranous caps (parenthesomes) on either side
    • Mycelium can be monokaryotic and dikaryotic during the life cycle
    • Clamp connections
    • Has a stipe and pileus, as well as gills
  5. Basidiomycetes: reproduction
    Reproduce mainly through forming basidiospores
  6. Basidiomycetes: relevance
    • Important for decomposing plant litter
    • Cause wheat rust and corn smut
  7. Sexual Life Cycle of Basidiomycetes
    • a.       Basidia form in well-defined hymenia that are exposed before the basidiospores are mature from a terminal cell of a dikaryotic hypha
    • b.      Karyogamyà meiosisà four haploid nuclei, which migrate into a sterigma, which enlarges at its tip to form a uninucleate, haploid basidiospore
    • c.       Mitosisà 8 haploid spores
    •                                                               i.      Post meiotic mitosis may occur in the basidium, the sterigmata, or the young spore
    • d.      At maturity, the basidiospores are discharged from the basidioma and are dispersed by the wind
  8. Sexual Life Cycle of Rust Fungi that cause Wheat Rust
    • 1) Early spring: barberry bush infected by uninucleate basidiospores
    • 2) The hyphae of hte basidiospores (+ and -) give rise to + and - spermogonia
    • 3) when the spermatia from one strain come in contact with the receptive hyphae of the opposite strain--> plasmogamy and formation of aecia
    • 4) n+n aeciospores are produced--> infect wheat (reddish streaks called uredinia)

    • 5) Uredinia contain single-celled, dikaryotic urediniospores--> reinfect the wheat
    • 6) Late summer and early fall: Streaks are converted to dark-colored telia containing teliospores
    • 7) karyogamy occurs and teliospores overwinter
    • 8) early spring: germination of teliospore--> mitosis--> basidium and four haploid basidiospores
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Bio Exam 2 (Charts: Fungus: Deutermycetes and Basidiomycetes
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