Pl Sc 221 Part 2

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  1. Alteration of Generations
    Life cycle where there are at least two multicellular generations (gametophyte and sporophyte) linked by unicellular reproductive stages (gametes and spores)
  2. Haplontic
    Life cycle in which the main form is haploid, with a diploid zygote formed briefly.
  3. Diplontic
    Having a life cycle in which the main form, except for the gametes, is diploid.
  4. Sporophyte
    The diploid (2n) spore-producing phase of the life cycle of an organism exhibiting alt. of gen.
  5. Gametophyte
    Haploid (n) gamete-producing phase of the life cycle of an organism exhibiting alt. of gen.
  6. Gamete
    a sex cell: one of two cells that unite to form a zygote
  7. Spore
    A haploid reproductive cell capable of developing directly into a gametophyte without uniting with another cell (asexual reproduction)
  8. Mitosis
    Nuclear division where the chromatids of chromosomes separate and form two genetically identical daughter cells.
  9. Meiosis
    Process of two nuclear divisions where the segregation of genes occur and a single diploid cell (2n) becomes 4 haploid cells.
  10. Sporangia
    Structure where spores are produced, can be unicellular or multicellular
  11. Bryophytes
    Non-vasular plants: mosses, liverworts, hornworts
  12. Lycopodiophyta
    Seedless vascular plants w/ microphylls (leaves with only single vascular vein)
  13. Pteridophyta
    Seedless vascular plants with "true" leaves (megaphylls)
  14. Prothallus
    The gametophyte of ferns and their relatives
  15. Gametangia
    Any cell or structure in which gametes are produced
  16. Antheridia
    Male gametangium of certain algae, fungi, bryophytes, and vascular plants other than gymnosperms and angiosperms
  17. Archegonia
    The multicellular female gametangium of brophytes and most vascular plants other than angiosperms
  18. Sori
    A cluster of sporangia, usually used for ferns
  19. Gymnosperm
    Latin for "naked seed", has secondary growth, vascular system, seeds and pollen grain.
  20. Homospory
    (fern) development of a single kind of asexual spores
  21. Endospory
    Complete development of female gametophyte in original megaspore
  22. Reduction to 1 megaspore
    • Cells in megasporangium that undergo meiosis (megasporocytes (2n) or megaspore mother cell) reduced to one.
    • Megasporocyte gives 4 haploid megaspores during meiosis.
  23. Retention of Megaspore
    • Megaspore stays in sporangium.
    • Integument grows from base of sporophyte and sporangium wall forms OVULE (immature seed)
  24. Bracts
    Part of a female cone, a modified leaf
  25. Ovuliferous Scale
    Part of a female cone, a modified lateral shoot system
  26. Microsporangium (conifers)
    the pollen sac
  27. Heterospory
    The production of both microspores and megaspores
  28. Megaspore
    A spore that develops into a female gametophyte
  29. Microspore
    A spore that develops into a male gametophyte
  30. Megasporangium
    A sporangium in which megaspores are found
  31. Microsporangium
    A sporangium in which microspores are produced
  32. Phyllotaxis
    Arrangement of leaves around the stem
  33. Angiosperms
    • Greek for "vessel" and "seed". 2 major groups are monocots and dicots. Features are flowers.
    • Endosperm
    • No archegonia
    • Second integument
    • Vessels
  34. Modified Leaves of Angiosperms
    Include sepals, petals, stamens, carpels.
  35. Germination
    Beginning of resumption of growth of seed after dormancy
  36. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  37. Genes
    What genetic info is organized into
  38. RNA
    Ribonucleic acid. Sequences consist of same nucleotides of DNA but thymine replaced with uracil.
  39. Genotype
    Genetic material carrying the info that contributes to the phenotype
  40. Phenotype
    Total of the observable features, result of the interaction of the genotype with the environment.
  41. Norm of Reaction
    The variability of the phenotype depending on the given genotype and the environmental conditions.
  42. Trait
    A distinct characteristic of a phenotype
  43. Law of Segregation
    Each trait has two alleles, if they're the same it's homozygous, if they're different it's heterozygous.
  44. Law of Independent Assortment
    Separate genes for separate traits inherited differently from each other in gamete formation
  45. Law of Dominance
    Recessive alleles always masked by dominant alleles
  46. How humans can use plant genetics to increase yield or resistance to pests/environment?
    • 1. Traditional breeding experiments
    • 2. Genetic engineering techniques
    • 3. Other techniques like "assisted migration"
  47. Natural Selection
    Different reproductive success of different phenotypes due to favourable trait combinations
  48. Genetic Drift
    Random process that eliminates part of the gene pool (ex. natural disasters)
  49. Convergent Evolution
    Evolution of similar structures that occured at different points of origin due to environmental or other factors (ex. wings for birds, fins for sharks)
  50. Divergent Evolution
    Evolution of morphologically different structures derived from a common ancestor (ex. limbs of tetrapods, horses, reptiles, humans share same bones).
  51. Microevolution
    Studies evolution below a species level (ex. population).
  52. Macroevolution
    Studies evolution above species level, all the way back to common ancestors.
  53. Allopatric speciation
    new species formed by geographically isolated populations
  54. Peripatric speciation
    New population formed from small population isolated at edge of larger population
  55. Parapatric speciation
    Continuously distributed population
  56. Sympatric speciation
    New speciation formed within the range of the ancestral population
  57. King Phillip Came Over For Great Soup
    Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  58. Binomial Nomenclature
    Introduced by Carl Linnaeus, Genius first Species second.
  59. Monophyletic Group
    A valid grouping
  60. Polyphyletic Groups
    Invalid grouping, groups of organisms that include descendants from more than one common ancestor
  61. Paraphyletic Groups
    Invalid grouping, groups of organisms that share the most common common ancestor but not all its descendants
  62. RNA-polymerase
    binds to promoter region in gene and initiates gene transcription
  63. How to build phylogenies?
    with morphological and molecular data
  64. Diffusion
    Random movement of molecules from regions of higher concentrations to lower concentrations
  65. Brownian motion
    the random movement of molecules
  66. Solution
    Made of solvent and solute mixed together
  67. Osmosis
    Solvent (in this case water) moving across a semi-permeable membrane to an area of lower concentration
  68. Aquaporin
    Water-selective pore in the cell's plasmamembrane
  69. Plant cell state: Hypertonic
  70. Plant cell state: Isotonic
  71. Plant cell state: Hypotonic
  72. Water potential of pure water?
  73. Water movement and water potentials?
    Water always moves from areas with higher water potential to areas of lower water potential
  74. Water potential is the sum of...
    solute potential + pressure potential +gravimetric potential
  75. Solute potential
    Always negative, expressed in MPa
  76. Pressure potential
    • Can be positive or negative, expressed in MPa
    • Aka "turgor pressure"
  77. Pressure-driven bulk flow
    • Mass movement of water in response to a pressure gradient
    • >99.5% of water movement in xylem occurs this way
  78. Cohesion
    Attraction of water molecules to each other
  79. Adhesion
    Attraction of water molecules to non-water molecules (wood, glass, etc)
  80. Capillary action
    • Result of adhesion and surface tension 
    • Attractive forces b/w wood and water stronger than cohesive forces of water molecules
  81. Water movement in roots
    • Water absorbed through fine roots
    • Water enters cells via osmosis
    • Travels along negative water potential gradient to center and enters xylem
  82. Cohesion-Tension Theory
    • Bulk of water absorbed + moved through plants by negative pressure
    • Able to function b/c water is cohesive - sticks to itself through hydrogen bonding
    • Tension part of this theory generated by transpiration - water evaporates and pulls more water up from roots
  83. Photosynthesis Eqn
    6 CO2+6 H2O -> C6H12O+ 6 O2
  84. What is transported through phloem?
    Sugars, amino acids, other nutrients, hormones, mRNA
  85. Pressure flow model (phloem)
    • Phloem loading is active and requires energy
    • Sugar translocation from source to sink
    • Movement in phloem sap is bi-directional
  86. Plant tropisms
    • Phototropism (light)
    • Gravitropism (gravity)
    • Thigmotropism (touch)
  87. Auxin
    • Growth hormone, promotes elongation
    • Production mainly in apical meristems
    • Involved in tropisms (phototropism)
  88. Cytokinins
    • Promote cell divisions
    • Delay of ageing in leaves
  89. Gibberellin
    • Increases stem growth dramatically
    • Breaks dormancy of seeds and buds
  90. Abscisic acid (ABA)
    • Synthesized in plastids
    • Slows growth
    • Induces dormancy
    • Induces stomatal closure
  91. Ethylene
    • Gas naturally produced by fruits, flowers, seeds, leaves, and roots
    • Promotes fruit ripening and ageing
  92. Carbon Cycle
    Fixing CO2 from the atmosphere via photosynthesis in organic compounds (CHO) then releasing CO2 via respiration
  93. Major Greenhouse gases
    Water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone
  94. Observed effects of climate change
    • Increased wildfire
    • rising sea levels
    • warmer winters
    • more frequent and intense storms
    • oceans acidification
  95. Ecology
    Relationships between organisms and their environment and each other
  96. Population
    Members of the same species in a given location
  97. Community
    All the organisms in a given area or space
  98. Ecosystem
    • A community and their physical environment interacting as a system
    • Biotic and abiotic factors
  99. Primary succession
    • Bare rock
    • No competitors 
    • Pioneer species
    • ex. Lichens, mosses
    • Weathering/erosion breaks down rock and turns it into soil
  100. Secondary succession
    • Soil is present
    • Grasses and shrubs
    • Woody pioneers
    • More and more trees occupy area
    • Climax forest
  101. Biomes
    Distribution of vegetation types as a function of mean annual precipitation and temperature
  102. Climate
    Average pattern of temperature and precipitation over a long period of time
  103. Weather
    Short term patterns of variables like temperature and precipitation
  104. Major Biomes
    • Tundra
    • Taiga
    • Temperate deciduous forest
    • Grassland
    • Desert
    • Savanna
    • Rainforest
  105. Anthropogenic biomes
    Study of terrestrial biosphere by integrating human and ecological systems
  106. Constraints to crop production
    • Growth determining factors (genetics)
    • Growth limiting factors (environmental)
    • Growth reducing factors (crop pests)
  107. Crop yield-reducing factors
    • Weeds
    • Insects
    • Diseases
  108. Cost of yield-reducing factors to economy?
    Cause global losses of $300 billion US each year
  109. Weed
    A plant growing where it's not wanted
  110. Disease
    Any deviation from the normal state of a plant due to irritation by a pathogen or environmental factors
  111. Biotic diseases
    Infectious = transmissible
  112. Abiotic diseases
    Non-infectious = non-transmissible
  113. Regulatory Pest Management Strategies
    • Government level, aimed at exuding pests from a particular area or minimizing their spread
    • Pest Management Act of Alberta
  114. Cultural Management Strategies
    • Involves manipulation of the environment in order to make conditions unfavorable for the pest 
    • Should be considered first line of defence
    • ex. Crop rotation, sanitation, tillage
  115. Biological Control of Pests
    • Control of pests by other organisms
    • Sometimes occurs naturally
    • Potential for improvement by introduction/application of antagonistic microorganisms
  116. Types of Biological Control: Classical
    Establishing one or more species of biocontrol agent(s) to regulate pest populations
  117. Types of biological control: Inundative
    • Biological agents mass produced and formulated: "biopesticides"
    • Applied where and when they're needed
  118. Types of biological control: augmentative
    Enhancing existing populations of biological control agents
  119. Chemical Control: Pesticides
    Use of compounds that are toxic to plant pathogens (fungicides), insects (insecticides), and weeds (herbicides)
  120. Transgenic crops
    Genetically modified crops, often for resistance against certain pathogens
  121. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
    Integration of all available genetic, cultural, biological, and chemical methods for pest control in a way to maximize their benefits and minimize their risks for producers, consumers, and the environment
  122. Rangelands
    Type of land that is unsuited for continuous cultivation and receives limited management inputs
  123. Range Management
    The management of rangelands for the production of goods and services seemed desireable by society in general
  124. Evapotranspiration
    The sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land surface to the atmosphere
  125. P:E ratio
    • Agriculture potential? basic rangeland characteristic
    • ex. 0.5 means double the water can evaporate from the land than is absorbed
    • P:E ratio of 1 will support forests/continuous crop cultivation
  126. Forestry
    The science, business, and practice of conserving and managing forests to provide sustained supply of forest products, forest conditions, or other values
  127. CCFM
    Canadian Council of Forest Ministers
  128. Sustainable Forest Management
    Managing forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity, or capacity for regeneration
  129. Structural Diversity
    • Spatial arrangement of plants (horizontal + vertical)
    • Amount of canopy gaps, dead logs, size differences, etc
  130. Local (alpha) biodiversity
    • Diversity in a single place
    • Community structure (number of size classes represented)
  131. Local Landscape Diversity (b/w stand diversity=beta diversity)
    • Across a local landscape, series of different biological communities
    • results from diff soil moistures, variation in disturbance history
    • differences in dominant species, structure, age
  132. Regional (gamma) diversity
    • "Landscape" diversity
    • diversity of multiple communities
    • Major landscape features (mountains, large lakes, oceans) that result in life-form and species composition
  133. Temporal Change
    Ecological succession
  134. Natural Regeneration
    ex. trembling aspen, cutting of trees reduces auxin supply from shoot, stimulates growth of "suckers" on roots that will grow into shoots
  135. Silviculture
    • Art of producing and tending stands to achieve management objectives 
    • Site preparation
    • Regeneration practices/methods
    • Vegetation Management
    • Tending
  136. Settled Agriculture Involves:
    • 1. Cultivation: deliberate sowing or management of plants
    • 2. Domestication: human modification of a plant or animal that makes it obviously different than its wild ancestors
  137. 8 centres of crop origin (Vavilov)
    • 1. China (tea, soybean)
    • 2. India (cucumber, nutmeg)
    • 3. Central Asia (rice, sugar cane)
    • 4. Near East (wheat barley, rye, oats, flax)
    • 5. Mediterranean (canola, cabbage)
    • 6. Ethiopia (yam, coffee)
    • 7. Mesoamerica (maize, beans)
    • 8. South America (potato, pepper, tomato)
  138. Fertile crescent of Mesopotamia
    • Parts of modern Iraq, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordon
    • Wild crops of many important crops still found in this area today
  139. Norman Borlaug
    • Father of the Green Revolution
    • Wiped out stem rust disease of wheat through selective breeding
    • Helped increase crop yield in developing countries such as China and Africa
  140. Modern Agriculture - Developed World
    • Mechanized
    • Economies of Scale
    • Monocultures
    • High inputs of pesticides, fossil fuels
    • Environmental Costs?
  141. Modern Agriculture - Developing World
    • Less mechanized
    • small scale
    • High labour, low inputs
    • multi-cropping
  142. 4 Canadian Agricultural Systems
    • 1. Conventional agriculture
    • 2. conservation agriculture, minimum-till or no-till
    • 3. Organic agriculture
    • 4. sustainable (integrated) agriculture
  143. Conventional Agriculture
    • High yields
    • tillage
    • high inputs of fertilizer, pesticides
    • limited crop rotations
  144. Conservation agriculture (min-till or no-till)
    • ~1985 on
    • no till, planting crop on the untilled plant rubble from previous crop w/ little or no soil disturbance
    • economically and environmentally friendly
  145. Organic agriculture
    • No synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, GMOs, etc
    • greater use of rotations of legumes, animal manure, etc
    • tillage for weed control (erosion)
    • lower yields
  146. Sustainable Agriculture
    • Minimum tillage + integrated crop management
    • knowledge based
    • minimize pesticides through: crop rotation, management, trap crops, etc
Card Set
Pl Sc 221 Part 2
Midterm to Final cards
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