Study guide for exam 2

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  1. (self justification) self esteem
    One's feelings of self worth
  2. (self justification) Cognitive dissonance (2)
    An aversive motivational state that results when..

    -we engage in behavior that is inconsistent with our attitudes or

    -we hold two inconsistent cognitions

    **creates psychological tension
  3. (self justification) 3 ways to reduce dissonance
    • -change behavior
    • *make behavior consistent with cognitions
    • *eat more veggies

    • -change the cognition
    • *change one of the dissonant cognitions
    • *too many veggies can be bad for you

    • -add new cognitions
    • *add consonant cognitions
    • **eat veggies is inconvenient/stressful. IM happier without them
  4. (self justification) counter attitudinal advocacy
    When you are induced to publicly state an attitude contrary to your own attitude
  5. (self justification) counter attitudinal advocacy- internal justification
    • Reducing dissonance by bringing your attitude in line with the behavior
    • *politicians who start believing what they are saying
  6. (self justification) counter attitudinal advocacy- external justification
    • Situational explanations for dissonant behavior
    • *politicians need votes so they will support something they may not personally feel supportive.
  7. Forced compliance paradigm- description of experiment (2)
    -pay participants either $1 or $20 dollars to describe a boring story

    -the people that received a dollar enjoyed this experience and were willing to partake in similar experiments than the people that received $20
  8. (self justification) post decision dissonance
    • After make a decision, we tend to enhance the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devalue the rejected alternative
    • *me devaluing the iPad air and hyping up surface
  9. (self justification) justification of effort
    • Tendency for individuals to increase their liking of something they worked hard to attain.
    • *frat initiation
  10. (self justification) self affirmation theory
    • Suggests that people will reduce impact of dissonance on their self concept by focusing on and affirming their competence on some other dimension
    • *perform poorly on an exam but affirm that you are a great friend to Jane
  11. (self justification) self evaluation maintenance and 2 things we do depending on the circumstances
    One's self concept can be threatened by others behavior

    -if not relevant and relationship close then "bask in the reflected glory"

    -if relevant and relationship close, then feel bad and want to reduce self threat
  12. Attitudes and persuasion) define attitudes
    A relatively stable (positive or negative) evaluation of some person, object, issue
  13. Attitudes and persuasion) what are attitudes? (4)
    • -acquired
    • *learned over time


    • -affective
    • *involve good/bad evaluations

    -about a particular object
  14. Attitudes and persuasion) what is direct measurement?

    *one way to learn people's attitudes*
    • -asking people direct to report their attitudes
    • *scales and surveys
  15. Attitudes and persuasion) social desirability
    Act in a way that is socially approved so they won't leave a bad impression. Problem bc the subject may not feel that way about an issue
  16. Attitudes and persuasion) Bogus pipeline outcome experiment
    -people were more inclined to confess through bogus pipeline than through self report surveys.
  17. Attitudes and persuasion) IAT tests
    • -reaction time and errors to good/bad associations
    • *if they show me white faces, it will be easier to label them with nice things. If they show me black people faces and I want to hide my racial biases it would take longer to label them.
  18. Attitudes and persuasion) implicit attitudes
    Are the positive or negative thoughts, feelings, or actions towards objects or groups which arise due to past experiences which one is either unaware of or which one cannot attribute to an identified previous experiences
  19. Attitudes and persuasion) how do we acquire attitudes? (4)

    • -affect
    • *classical conditioning
    • *operant conditioning
    • *modeling


    -behavior: cognitive dissonance
  20. Attitudes and persuasion) what makes an attitude strong?



    • -Fazio model of attitude accessibility
    • *how easily/rapidly will attitude come to mind when shown attitude object
    • **attitude is activated when called to mind
    • **behavior is affected when attitude is activated
  21. Attitudes and persuasion) accessibility
    • How easily/rapidly will attitude come to mind when shown attitude object
    • *reaction time
  22. Attitudes and persuasion) are attitudes linked to behavior?

    • Attitudes did not predict behavior very well
    • * surveyed bunch of restaurants whether they would refused service to a specific ethnicity. Most said yes but when that ethnicity showed up only one person was assertive enough to refused service to them
  23. Attitudes and persuasion) theory of planned behavior
    -attitude toward a behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control >> intention >>behavior
  24. Attitudes and persuasion) moral mandates
    Attitude positions or stands that people develop out of a moral conviction that something is right or wrong (moral or immoral)
  25. Attitudes and persuasion) elaboration likelihood model
    It attempts to specify which factors are the most important to persuasion under which circumstances for Attitudes and persuasion which people.
  26. Attitudes and persuasion) central/systematic routes to persuasion (2)

    *main types of factors
    -content of the message or what is said

    -requires thought and careful processing
  27. Attitudes and persuasion) peripheral/heuristic routes to persuasion (3)

    *main types of factors
    -presentation of the message or How it is said

    -irrelevant to message content

    -uses quick and easy "rules of thumb"
  28. Attitudes and persuasion) under which circumstances is central/systematic route used? (3)
    -when the message is relevant/important

    • -when the listener can pay attention
    • *not distracted

    -when info is comprehensible
  29. Attitudes and persuasion) under which circumstance is peripheral/heuristic route used? (3)
    -when the message is irrelevant

    -when the listener is distracted or busy

    -when the info is too complicated
  30. Attitudes and persuasion) fear changes attitudes when... (4)
    -moderate fear

    -negative consequences of not changing are made salient and clear

    -high probability that consequences will really occur if the recommended action is not taken

    -recommended action is seen as effectively avoiding the negative circumstances
  31. Attitudes and persuasion) persuasion and emotions: emotions can act as heuristics (3)
    -people may simply ask how do I feel about it

    -emotion does not have to be caused by the target of decision to have an influence

    -as part of peripheral/heuristic route, most likely to operate when people aren't thinking too hard
  32. Attitudes and persuasion) attitude inoculation (3)

    *resisting persuasion
    -expose people to small doses of arguments against their position

    -refute the arguments

    -people become immune to future persuasive appeals
  33. Attitudes and persuasion) reactance theory
    • When persuasive message threatens perceived freedom an unpleasant state is aroused
    • *this state is reduced by performing prohibited behavior
  34. Attitudes and persuasion) subliminal processing
    • Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but supposedly influence thoughts feelings and behavior
    • **overall research shows that they do not work
  35. (social influence) define conformity
    spontaneously changing one's beliefs, attitudes, or behavior in ways that are consistent with perceived social norms
  36. (social influence) define compliance
    Enacting a behavior in response to direct request by another person to do so
  37. (social influence) obedience
    Enacting a behavior in response to a direct order by another person to do sio
  38. (social influence) 2 facts regarding conformity
    -in our culture there are extremes of conformity such as fashion, slang, social nroms

    -research in this area was prompted by holocaust incident
  39. (social influence) informational social influence
    • The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior
    • *usually occurs in ambiguous situations
    • *consensus= correctness
  40. (social influence) study of autokinetic effect by sheriff (2)
    • -participants asked to say how far the light goes on the wall
    • *the results varied person to person

    • -days later, the participants were paired together judging the movement aloud.
    • *eventually all three started agreeing on the distance that it traveled.
  41. (social influence) conditions when informational social influence is most likely to influence (5)
    -situation is ambiguous

    -other people are experts

    -need to be correct

    -need to act now

    -crisis situation
  42. (social influence) Ways to resist informational influence  (3)
    -consider whether or not other's view of a situation is any more legitimate than your own

    -look to other potential sources of information

    -keep in mind that your actions may be serving as a potential modeling experience for someone else so be responsible.
  43. (social influence) normative social influence
    Conforming to be liked or accepted
  44. (social influence) Social norms:
    The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members
  45. (social influence) social impact theory
    -social influence depends on group size, group is important, or group is unanimous
  46. (social influence) Ash line judgment studies
    • People were more influenced when unanimous decision was in placed such as the line is the same size as the small line.
    • *people actually believed it also
  47. (social influence) factors that affect conformity (3)
    • -culture
    • *collectivist cultures conform more than individualistic

    -self esteem

    • -gender
    • *females tend to conform more
  48. (social influence) reactance
    A motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom that is activated when our freedom is threatened
  49. (social influence) resisting normative influence (2)
    -become aware that we are conforming thus question one's actions

    -find an ally to become a vocal minority
  50. (social influence) public conformity
    Usually people conform to the norms of a group but not privately accept the norms
  51. (social influence) private acceptance
    Sometimes people conform to social norms but they may or may not privately accept the norms as their beliefs
  52. (social influence) mindless conformity
    • Obeying internalized social norms without deliberating about their actions
    • *auto pilot
    • **saying hello on the phone
  53. (social influence) compliance: underlying principles (6)




    -social validation

  54. (social influence) door in the face technique
    • People comply with a request by presenting to comply with a request by presenting them first with a large request and then with a smaller, more reasonable request
    • *reciprocity
    • *would you like to donate 100 dollars, how about 10 dollars.
  55. (social influence) foot in the door technique
    • Gets people to comply with small, easy request followed by a larger request
    • *better for long term compliance
    • *consistency
  56. (social influence) low ball technique
    Person agrees to small reasonable request then requester reveals that increased costs are involved
  57. (social influence) that's not all technique
    First, a fairly large request is made then a bonus is offered immediately that makes initial offer seem better
  58. (social influence) pique technique
    An unusual request is made that disrupts automatic thinking and captures person's attention
  59. (social influence) power and compliance
    We often comply when we perceive others as having more power than us
  60. (social influence) bases of power: rewards
    Power based on providing or promising a positive outcome
  61. (social influence) bases of power: coercion
    Power based on providing or promising a negative outcome
  62. (social influence) bases of power: expertise
    Power based on special knowledge or ability
  63. (social influence) bases of power: information
    Power based on controlling available information
  64. (social influence) bases of power: referent
    Power based on associations with others who have power
  65. (social influence) bases of power: legitimate
    Power based on the influencer's right or authority to make a request
  66. (social influence) Obedience to authority
    Philosopher Arendt argued that the people that participated in holocaust were not psychopathic people rather they were ordinary people bowing to extraordinary social pressures
  67. (social influence) Milgram obedience studies
    • Majority of the people were administering shocks to people that were in pain
    • *some volts were fatal but they still obeyed
  68. Group processes) definition of groups according to Aronson
    Two or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
  69. Group processes) definition of group according to baron&byrne
    A collection of persons who are perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit to some degree
  70. Group processes) features of groups- roles (3)
    -Differentiation of function

    -formal or informal assignment

    -role conflict
  71. Group processes) features of groups: status
    Groups often confer or withhold status as a way to control member behavior
  72. Group processes) features of groups: norms (3)
    • -Prescriptive norms
    • *tells group members how to behave

    • -proscriptive norms
    • *tells group members how not to behave

    -adherence to norms is basic requirement of membership
  73. Group processes) features of groups: cohesiveness
    Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
  74. Group processes) social facilitation
    The tendency for people to do better on simple takes and worse on complex tasks when in the presence of others
  75. Group processes) cockroach study (2)
    -roaches ran simple maze faster when other roaches were present

    -roaches ran complex mazes more slowly when other roaches were present
  76. Group processes) sources of social facilitation (3)

    -evaluation apprehension

    • -distraction-conflict
    • **research supports evaluation apprehension and distraction conflict
  77. Group processes) social loafing
    Reductions in performance when working collectively In a group compared to when working independently or coacting
  78. Group processes) predictors of individual performance
    -ability to monitor individual input into task predicts individual performance
  79. Group processes) are two heads better than one?
    No, sometimes groups are unable to meet performance expectations
  80. Group processes) example of process loss
    Failure to share unique information during group discussion

    • *shared information: information held by several group members before discussion
    • *Unshared information: information held by a single group member before discussion
    • **shared tends to be discussed more than unshared; also tends to be mentioned earlier and repeated more often during discussion
  81. Group processes) groupthink
    A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
  82. Group processes) groupthink: antecedents of group think (2)
    -high cohesiveness

    • -group structure:
    • *very similar group members
    • *isolation
    • *directive leadership
    • *high stress
    • *unsystematic procedures
  83. Group processes) group think: symptoms of group think (5)
    -illusion of invulnerability

    -perceived high moral ground


    -increased pressures toward uniformity; group members censor discrepant views

    -illusion of unanimity
  84. Group processes) consequences of groupthink (4)
    -defective decision making

    -incomplete survey of alternatives

    -failure to account for risks

    -failure to work out contingency plans

    **often leads to bad decisions
  85. Group processes) ways to reduce groupthink (3)
    -consult widely with outsiders

    -leaders explicitly encourage criticism

    -establish norms of critical review of all decisions
  86. Group processes) group polzarization
    The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
  87. Group processes) contingency theory of leadership
    • Leader effectiveness depends on task vs relationship orientation and the amount of control leader has over the group
    • *neither type of leader is good in every situation
    • **task oriented leaders perform better when control Is low or high
    • **relationship oriented leaders are more effective when control is moderate
  88. Group processes) social dilemma
    • A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will (if chosen by most people) have harmful effects on everyone
    • *used to study cooperation and conflict
  89. Group processes) negotiation
    • Form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counter offers are made
    • * a solution occurs only when both parties agree
  90. Group processes) tactics for reaching integrative solutions (3)
    -negotiations most successful when members make trade offs according to their different interests (integrative solutions

    -easiest to find an integrative solution when parties trust one another and have open communication

    -trick: identifying integrative solution
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Study guide for exam 2
Study guide for exam 2
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