bio test 2

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  1. Movement of molecules down a concentration gradient- requires no energy
  2. same as diffusion but uses a carrier to transfer through
    facilitated diffusion
  3. requires energy to move through the bilayer
    active transport
  4. where is cholesterol located?
    In the phospholipid bi layer (adds structure)
  5. found prokaryotes/eukaryotes
    consist of lipid bilayer and proteins
    plasma membrane
  6. protein synthesis
    RNA and Protein
  7. contains chlorophyll
    needed for photosynthesis
  8. "powerhouse of cell", cellular respiration, forms ATP
  9. "Post Office" modifies, packages, sends proteins
    Golgi Apparatus
  10. oxidation, detoxifies drugs and toxins
  11. only in plant cells, made of cellulose
    cell wall
  12. where DNA is, "command center"
  13. stynthesis of RNA
  14. digestion and cellular recycling
  15. protein synthesis
    rough ER
  16. makes lipids
    smooth ER
  17. stores water and nutrients
    central vacuole
  18. glucose -> pyruvate, occurs in cytoplasm
  19. (krebs) produces CO2, occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
    Citric Acid Cycle
  20. uses O2 as electron acceptor, NADH-> NAD+
    uses electron carriers and proton pump to form ATP
    Electron transport/oxidative phosphorilation
  21. pyruvate to acids or alcohols, makes 2 ATP from sub. phos. 
    occurs in cytosol
  22. shrink, greater solute
  23. swell, less solute
  24. what do enzymes do?
    increase rate of reaction
  25. what occurs in the cytosol?
    fermentation and glycolysis
  26. 3 types of cytoskeleton
    • microtubles-shape cell
    • microfilaments-function in muscle contractions
    • intermediate filaments- fix organelles
  27. Output of Cellular Respiration
    • 10 NADH
    • 2 FADH
    • 30 to 32 ATP per glucose
  28. How do larger molecules cross?
    Exocytosis or phagocytosis
  29. Long distance signaling
    uses hormones
  30. 3 stages of cell signaling?
    • reception
    • transduction
    • response
  31. local signaling
  32. releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into small ones
    catabolic pathways
  33. Light reactions input and output
    • in: light, water, ADP, NADP+
    • out: ATP, NADHP, O2
  34. Calvin Cycle in and out
    • in: ATP, NADPH, CO2
    • out: ADP, NADP+, G3P
  35. "self feeders" convert solar energy to chemical energy
  36. obtain organic material from other organisms
  37. photosynthesis occurs in...
    • plants, alga, unicellular protists, and some bacteria
    • where theres chlorophyll
  38. Where do light reactions occur?
    thylakoid membrane
  39. where does the calvin cycle take place?
    in the stroma
  40. Citric Acid cycle
    • completes oxidation of glucose 
    • produces CO2

    1 glucose = 8 NADH
  41. any process that transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP to form ATP is called
    substrate phosphorylation
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bio test 2
bio test two
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