Define the "Alimentary Canal"?
This is the TUBE part of the digestive system
What are the 14 main organs of the Digestive System
- 1. Mouth
- 2. Tongue
- 3. Esophagus
- 4. Liver
- 5. Bladder
- 6. Gallbladder
- 7. Small Intestine
- 8. Salivary gland
- 9. Pharynx
- 10. stomach
- 11. Pancreas
- 13. Spleen
- 14. Large Intestine
Accessory organs of the Digestive System:
- 1. Pancreas,
- 2. Liver,
- 3. Gallbladder.
What is digestion?
Breaking food down into smaller bits by mechanical chemical action
What is absorption?
The process where material crosses the inner lining of the intestine and goes into the capillaries or the lymph.
*The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
*Breaking dwn of protein to energy which gives us ATP
An opening that is surrounded by the epithelial membrane inside the digestive tract.
found in both the small intestines and the large intestines.
Mucosa of Digestive tract
- is the inner most layer
- lines the digestive tract
- Found beneath the muscoa
- Soft connective tissue
- Containins blood vessels, never endings, lymphoid tissus and lymphatic vessels
Decribe the Muscularis
is a muscle layer made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
Desrcibe Serosa layer
- Is the outter most layer
- has a single layer of flat, serous fluid
Contractions of the longitudinal muscles that occur in your digestive tract.
Involves contractions of the circular muscles
What is the Mesentery digestive tract
The mesentery is composed of connective tissue called the peritoneum which covers most of the abdominal organs, providing protection and support.
Mesentery keep organs in place, protecting them from injury and rubbing against each other
Describe hard & soft palate of oral cavity
Hard palate forms anterior (top) roof of mouth
Soft Palate forms forms posterior (back) roof of mouth
Oral cavity: Describe UVULA
a fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the throat.
(Prevents things from going up)
Oral cavity: Describe Tongue
A fleshy organ in the mouth (used for speech, tasting etc.)
What is the incisors?
- narrow-edged tooth at the front of the mouth
- Four 1st top teeth
- Four 1st botom teeth
what are canine
a pointed tooth between the incisors and premolars
What are premolars teeth?
The teeth that are located between the canine and molar teeth
What are molars?
a grinding tooth at the back of the oral cavity
What is mastication?
chewing biting grinding food
- moistening food
- protects your teeth
- makes chewing easy
What is the role of the pharynx during the digestive process?
- Passageway of both air and food.
- Pharynx receives food in the digestive system after being swallowed and pushes it to the oesophagus.
What is the location, length and structure of the esophagus?
- Location: Runs frm the pharynx to stomach
- Lenghth: 25cm (10 inches) long
- Structure: Thin pipe that is lined with mucosa epithlium. (fairly delicate)
Flap of cartilage at the root (bottom) of the tongue
What is the esophageal hiatus?
Hole in the diaphragm which the esophagus and the vagus nerve passes.
What is the esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
A ring of muscles that create the valve in the lower esophageal area.
function is to keep the strong acids produced in the stomach from entering the esophagus
Describe the location, characteristics, of the stomach
- Location: Left side of the abdominal cavity
- Characteristics: made up of muscle layer (longitudinal, circular and oblique muscle), submucosa and mucosa
Function of the stomach
- Temporary storage allowing time for digestive enzymes to act
- Chemical digestion
- Mechanical breakdown and production of chyme
- Limited absorption of water, alcohol and some fat-soluble drugs
To expand to make room for more food
connects to the duodenum (start of the small intestine.)
The pyloric sphincter is at the end of the pyloric canal.
Pyloric sphincter muscle prevents regurgitation of food from the intestine back into the stomach.
Convex lateral surface of the stomach is the
Greater curvature of the stomach (right side of stomach)
The concave medial surface of the stomach is
Lesser curvature (Left side of stomach)
3 muscle layers of the stomach are:
- Longitudinal layers
- Circular layer (aids in complex grinding motions)
- Oblique layer (smooth muscle)
Rugae of the stomach
Are expandable folds located on the interior surface of the stomach.
Function to expand or contract size of stomach for food or fluid that is consumed.
wave-like muscle contractions that moves food
Chyme of the stomach
IS A HEAVY CREAM THAT IS PRODUCED AFTER FOOD HAS BEEN PROCESSED
Name 3 Gasteric glands
What do they do?
- 1. cardiac,
- 2. ture,
- 3. pyloric glands
These juices help digest and break down food
Small intestine - duodenum
Is the first part of the small intestine12 finger widths long
middle portion of the small intestine
Final and longest segment of the small intestine
- Permanent crescentic folds of mucous membrane found in the small intestine
- (Also called - valvulae conniventes)
What is another name for Valvulae conniventes
What is another name for circular folds?
Are tiny projection of the plasma membrane
Give cells surface a fuzzy appearance
are small, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall
Is between the small intestine and the large intestine.purpose of this valve is to “prevent backflow” from the Large IntestINE
- Largest glan in the body
- Location: under diaphragm more to right side of body
- Function: to produce bile and filter blood coming from digestive tract
Gallbladder (small pear-shaped organ)
Location: under the liver on the right side of the abdomen
Function: To store bile, (yellowish-brown fluid produced by the liver)
drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver
Stores back up bile
(WHEN FOOD DIGESTION IS NOT OCCURING BILE BACKS UP INTO THE cystic duct)
Picture of Liver / Stomach / Common Bile duct
Common Bile Duct
Small, tube-like structure where the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct join.
Function is to carry bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine (the duodenum
Nature of bile
Aids the digestion of lipids
Is 6 inches long and sits across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach.
Function: produces hormones, insulin and glucagon. Also produces enzymes that break down food
- large in diameter, but shorter in lenght (1.5m) (5 feet)
- starts from the Ileocecal vavle to the anus
- Functions: Dry out indigestible food residue by absorbing water and eliminate residue from body as feces
- Pouch like.
- Beginning part of large intestine
- Carries feces from the cecum to the transverse colon.
- Bacteria digest the transitory fecal matter in order to release vitamins.
- The intestinal wall absorbs water, nutrients, and vitamins from the feces and deposits these materials into our bloodstream.
- Located in the large intestine
- 3 bands of longitudinal muscles
- Have a dregree of tone (contracted)
small pocket like sacs
digestion of food
Process of changing food into a form that the body can absorb & use as energy or as the raw materials to repair and build new tissue
- Location: lining of the abdominal cavity
- Function: lubricant for preventing adhesions among pelvic organs
Is a double layer of peritoneum that suspends the jejunum and ileum from the posterior wall of the abdomen
- Drapes dwnwards and convers abdominal organs.
- Has lots of fat which helps to insulate, cushion and protect abdominal organs
- Has a large collection of lymphoid follicles to help with immune system