Elisa_GBC_1_Unit_9_Digestive System

  1. Define the "Alimentary Canal"?
    This is the TUBE part of the digestive system
  2. What are the 14 main organs of the Digestive System
    • 1. Mouth
    • 2. Tongue
    • 3. Esophagus
    • 4. Liver
    • 5. Bladder
    • 6. Gallbladder
    • 7. Small Intestine
    • 8. Salivary gland
    • 9. Pharynx
    • 10. stomach
    • 11. Pancreas
    • 13. Spleen
    • 14. Large Intestine
  3. Accessory organs of the Digestive System:
    • 1. Pancreas,
    • 2. Liver,
    • 3. Gallbladder.
  4. What is digestion?
    Breaking food down into smaller bits by mechanical chemical action
  5. What is absorption?
    The process where material crosses the inner lining of the intestine and goes into the capillaries or the lymph.
  6. Metabolism is?
    *The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.

    *Breaking dwn of protein to energy which gives us ATP
  7. Describe lumen
    An opening that is surrounded by the epithelial membrane inside the digestive tract.

    found in both the small intestines and the large intestines.
  8. Mucosa of Digestive tract
    • is the inner most layer
    • lines the digestive tract
    • moist
  9. Submucosa
    • Found beneath the muscoa
    • Soft connective tissue
    • Containins blood vessels, never endings, lymphoid tissus and lymphatic vessels
  10. Decribe the Muscularis
    is a muscle layer made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
  11. Desrcibe Serosa layer
    • Is the outter most layer
    • has a single layer of flat, serous fluid
  12. Peristalsis
    Contractions of the longitudinal muscles that occur in your digestive tract.
  13. Segmentation
    Involves contractions of the circular muscles
  14. What is the Mesentery digestive tract
    The mesentery is composed of connective tissue called the  peritoneum which covers most of the abdominal organs, providing  protection and support. 

    Mesentery keep organs in place, protecting them from injury and rubbing against each other
  15. Describe hard & soft palate of oral cavity
    Hard palate forms anterior (top) roof of mouth

    Soft Palate forms forms posterior (back) roof of mouth
  16. Oral cavity: Describe UVULA
    a fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the throat.

    (Prevents things from going up)
  17. Oral cavity: Describe Tongue
    A fleshy organ in the mouth (used for speech, tasting etc.)
  18. What is the incisors?
    • narrow-edged tooth at the front of the mouth
    • Four 1st top teeth
    • Four 1st botom teeth
  19. what are canine
    a pointed tooth between the incisors and premolars
  20. What are premolars teeth?
    The teeth that are located between the canine and molar teeth
  21. What are molars?
    a grinding tooth at the back of the oral cavity
  22. What is mastication?
    chewing biting grinding food
  23. Salivary glands
    Image Upload 1help with

    • moistening food
    • protects your teeth
    • makes chewing easy
  24. What is the role of the pharynx during the digestive process?
    • Passageway of both air and food. 
    • Pharynx receives food in the digestive system after being swallowed and pushes it to the oesophagus.
  25. What is the location, length and structure of the esophagus?
    • Location: Runs frm the pharynx to stomach
    • Lenghth: 25cm (10 inches) long
    • Structure: Thin pipe that is lined with mucosa epithlium. (fairly delicate)
  26. epiglottis
    Image Upload 2

    Flap of cartilage at the root (bottom) of the tongue
  27. What is the esophageal hiatus?
    Hole in the diaphragm which the esophagus and the vagus nerve passes.
  28. What is the esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
    A ring of muscles that create the valve in the lower esophageal area.

    function is to keep the strong acids produced in the stomach from entering the esophagus
  29. Describe the location, characteristics, of the stomach
    • Location: Left side of the abdominal cavity
    • Characteristics: made up of muscle layer (longitudinal, circular and oblique muscle), submucosa and mucosa
  30. Function of the stomach
    • Temporary storage allowing time for digestive enzymes to act
    • Chemical digestion
    • Mechanical breakdown and production of chyme
    • Limited absorption of water, alcohol and some fat-soluble drugs
  31. Fundus of Stomach:
  32. Picture of stomach
    Image Upload 3
  33. Fundas
    To expand to make room for more food
  34. Pylorus is?
    connects to the duodenum (start of the small intestine.)
  35. Pyloric sphincter
    The pyloric sphincter is at the end of the pyloric canal.

    Pyloric sphincter muscle prevents regurgitation of food from the intestine back into the stomach.
  36. Convex lateral surface of the stomach is the
    Greater curvature of the stomach (right side of stomach)
  37. The concave medial surface of the stomach is
    Lesser curvature (Left side of stomach)
  38. 3 muscle layers of the stomach are:
    • Longitudinal layers
    • Circular layer (aids in complex grinding motions)
    • Oblique layer (smooth muscle)
  39. Rugae of the stomach
    Are expandable folds located on the interior surface of the stomach. 

    Function to expand or contract size of stomach for food or fluid that is consumed.
  40. Peristalisis
    wave-like muscle contractions that moves food
  41. Chyme of the stomach
  42. Name 3 Gasteric glands
    What do they do?
    • 1. cardiac,
    • 2. ture,
    • 3. pyloric glands

    These juices help digest and break down food
  43. Small intestine - duodenum
  44. Is the first part of the small       intestine12 finger widths long
  45. jejunum
    middle portion of the small intestine
  46. ileum
    Final and longest segment of the small intestine
  47. plicae circularis
    • Permanent crescentic folds of mucous membrane found in the small intestine
    • (Also called - valvulae conniventes)
  48. What is another name for Valvulae      conniventes
    Permanent crescentic
  49. What is another name for circular folds?
    Plicae circularis
  50. Microvilli
    Are tiny projection of the plasma membrane

    Give cells surface a fuzzy appearance
  51. Intestinal villi
    are small, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall
  52. Ileo-cecal valve
    Is between the small intestine and the large intestine.purpose of this valve is to “prevent backflow” from the Large IntestINE
  53. Liver
    • Largest glan in the body
    • Location: under diaphragm more to right side of body
    • Function: to produce bile and filter blood coming from digestive tract
  54. Gallbladder (small pear-shaped organ)
    Location: under the liver on the right side of the abdomen

    Function: To store bile, (yellowish-brown fluid produced by the liver)
  55. hepatic duct
    drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver
  56. cystic duct
    Stores back up bile

  57. Picture of Liver / Stomach / Common Bile duct
    Image Upload 4
  58. Common Bile Duct
    Small, tube-like structure where the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct join. 

    Function is to carry bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine (the duodenum
  59. Nature of bile
    Aids the digestion of lipids
  60. Pancreas
    Is 6 inches long and sits across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach.

    Function: produces hormones, insulin and glucagon.  Also produces enzymes that break down food
  61. Large Intestine
    • large in diameter, but shorter in lenght (1.5m) (5 feet)
    • starts from the Ileocecal vavle to the anus
    • Functions: Dry out indigestible food residue by absorbing water and eliminate residue from body as feces
  62. Cecum
    • Pouch like.
    • Beginning part of large intestine
  63. Acsending colon
    • Carries feces from the cecum to the transverse colon. 
    • Bacteria digest the transitory fecal matter in order to release vitamins.
    • The intestinal wall absorbs water, nutrients, and vitamins from the feces and deposits these materials into our bloodstream.
  64. teniae coli
    • Located in the large intestine
    • 3 bands of longitudinal muscles
    • Have a dregree of tone (contracted)
  65. Haustra
    small pocket like sacs
  66. digestion of food
    Process of changing food into a form that the body can absorb & use as energy or as the raw materials to repair and build new tissue
  67. Peritoneum
    • Location: lining of the abdominal cavity
    • Function: lubricant for preventing adhesions among pelvic organs
  68. Mesentery
    Is a double layer of peritoneum that suspends the jejunum and ileum from the posterior wall of the abdomen
  69. Greater omentum
    • Drapes dwnwards and convers abdominal organs.
    • Has lots of fat which helps to insulate, cushion and protect abdominal organs
    • Has a large collection of lymphoid follicles to help with immune system
Card Set
Elisa_GBC_1_Unit_9_Digestive System
Elisa_GBC_1_Unit_9_Digestive System