1. public opinion
    the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of the adult population
  2. opinion poll
    A method of systematically questioning a small selected sample of respondents who are deemed representative of the total population
  3. simple random sample
    randomness, a known and equal chance of getting sampled
  4. political socialization (factors -- family, education, peers, religion, class, political events, opinion leaders, media, demography, gender)
    family: communication and receptivity...children learn things in school and media and can give their parents a 2nd chance to look at things and introduce new media (internet), education linked to poli participation due to info learned in school more education more understanding. peer groups for the most part play a nonpolitical role, leaders play a role of informing and persvaing, media tells audience what to think/talk about media plays a greater role on children than parents, women more concerned about risks to environment and social welfare, south republican and northeast democrats. large cities liberal and democratic small communities conservative and republican
  5. political culture
    set of of attitudes and ideas about the nation and the govt
  6. public opinion and policymaking
    confidence/dis trust in govt congress, policymaking the best interest cannot always make decisions to comment to every desire
  7. media (functions -- entertainment, reporting the news, public agenda, socializing, political forum, profits)
    entertainment often aims at politically controversial issues that rise debate and political values suck as aids incest and wife battering, reporting the news provides words pictures about events facts personalities and ideas, public agenda what the govt is doing and what it ought to do, socializing teaches young ppl and immigrants about what it means to be an american, politicians can promote their beliefs audience can be included by voicing their oppinions through letters to editors and electronic communications, profits made as a result of ads private for profit public non profit
  8. primacy of television
    most influencial medium, big business, high deman high $, news has become a major factor in the profitability of TV stations
  9. characteristics of media system
    advertising, mgmt of news coverage, campaign debates
  10. interest group
    An organized group of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers
  11. lobbyist
    An organization or individual that attempts to influecne the passage defeat or content of legislation and the govt administrative decisions.
  12. interest groups (types -- economic, environmental, public-interest, single-interest)
    economic groups business interest groups, agricultural interest groups, labor interest groups, public employee unions, interest groups for professionals, the unorganized poor, environmental groups earth day, public interest groups best interest of overall community, single interest best interest of a particular group/community
  13. interest group strategies -- direct, indirect
    direct technique interest group technique that uses direct interaction with govt officials to further the groups goals, indirect technique interest group technique that uses third parties to influence govt officials
  14. regulating lobbyists
    lobby disclosure act defined as anyone who spends at least 20% of time lobbying, must register with clerk of the house and secretary of the senate within 45 days of hire, semiannual reports
  15. political party
    A group of political activists who organize to win elections, operate the govt and determine public policy
  16. factions
    a group or bloc in a legislature or poli party acting in pursuit of some special interest or position
  17. two-party system
    a poli system in which only 2 parties have a resonable chance of winning
  18. plurality elections
    a number of votes cast for a candidate that is greater than the number of votes for any other candidate but not necessarily a majority
  19. party identification
    Linking oneself to a particular political party
  20. Electoral College
    who get to vote on the presidency and vice presidency
  21. voting
    office block and party column ballots, voting by mail, danger of fraud, mistakes by voting officials
  22. voter turnout
    the percentage of citizens taking part in the elction process; the number of eligible voters that actually turn out on election day to cast their ballots
  23. factors influencing who votes
    • oAge – the older you are, the more likely you are to vote
    • oEducational attainment – The more educated you are, the more likely you are to vote
    • oMinority status – Whites are more likely to turn out à African Americans à Latinos
    • oIncome levels – higher income people are more likely to turn out than low income people
    • oTwo-party competition – more competitive states tend to have higher turnout rates
  24. oAge – the older you are, the more likely you are to vote
    • oEducational attainment – The more educated you are, the more likely you are to vote
    • oMinority status – Whites are more likely to turn out à African Americans à Latinos
    • oIncome levels – higher income people are more likely to turn out than low income people
    • oTwo-party competition – more competitive states tend to have higher turnout rates
  25. factors influencing how people vote
    • oSocioeconomic and Demographic Factors
    • nEducation
    • nIncome and socioeconomic status (SES)
    • nReligion
    • nEthnic background
    • nGender
    • nGeographic region
    • oPsychological factors
    • nparty identification
    • nperception of candidates issue preferences
  26. domestic policy
    all govt laws planning and actions that concern internal issues of national importance such as poverty crime and the environment
  27. policymaking process
  28. oAgenda building – identifying a problem, getting it on the agenda
    • oPolicy formulation – debate that occurs between government officials, the public, the media, and in campaigns
    • oPolicy adoption – selection of a strategy for addressing a problem
    • oPolicy implementation – administration of the selected policy (by bureaucrats, the courts, etc.)
    • oPolicy evaluation – public, officials and groups determine if the selected policy has the desired impact
  29. income transfer
    a transfer of income from some individuals in the economy to other individuals. This is generally done through govt action
  30. poverty/low-income
    low-income poverty threshold in 2003 was $18,300 for a family of four
  31. in-kind subsidy
    a good or service such as food stamps housing medical care provided by the govt to low income groups
  32. TANF, SSI, food stamps, EITC
    • TANF a state administered program in which grants from the national govt are used to provide welfare benefits.
    • Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) – replaced AFDC in 1996; uses federal funds which are administered by the states to help needy families; product of Welfare Reform Act of 1996; limited most welfare recipients to two years of assistance; lifetime assistance to five years
    • oSupplemental Security Income (SSI) – provides minimum income to the elderly and disabled who do not qualify for Social Security benefits
    • oFood Stamps – coupons that can be used to purchase food are now distributed to more than 28 million Americans with little or no income
    • oEarned Income Tax Credit (EITC) – tax credit used by low income workers who get back part or all of the their Social Security taxes
  33. 1996 welfare reform act
    limited most welfare recipients to two years of assistance; lifetime assistance to five years
  34. crime, drug policy, terrorism
  35. oCommon throughout American history
    • oMurder rate nearly doubled between 1964 and 1994
    • oCrime has dropped since the mid-1990s
    • nincreased money to fight crime
    • nstrong economy
    • oFederal drug policy and crime
    • nRising percentage of arrests are drug-related
    • oTerrorism
  36. policy trade-offs
    Government response entails policy trade-offs; spending priorities; “you can’t have your cake and eat it too.”
  37. fiscal policy
    the federal govts use of taxation and spending policies to affect overall business activity
  38. budget deficit
    govt expenditures that exceeded receipts
  39. public debt, national debt
    total amt of debt carried by the federal govt
  40. monetary policy
    utilization of changes in the amout of money in circulation to alter credit markets employment and the rate of inflation
  41. politics of taxation, loopholes
    Tax loopholes = legal method by which individuals and corporations reduce tax liabilities Action-reaction syndrome = for every action on the part of government, there is a reaction on the part of the affected public Tax rates = progressive, for now…the more you earn, the more you pay
  42. social security
  43. oFederal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) taxes
    • oTrust Fund problems
    • oFuture: fewer workers per retiree
  44. foreign policy
    a nations external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them
  45. moral idealism
    a philosophy that views nations as normally willing to cooperate and to agree on moral standards of conduct
  46. political realism
    a philosophy that views each nation as acting prinicpally in its own interest
  47. challenges
  48. oTerrorism
    • oNuclear proliferation (along with proliferation of other WMD’s)
    • oChina – increasing power and influence; 21st Century will be China’s
    • oGlobal economy – dependence on oil, attempts to rationalize world economy
    • oRegional conflicts – ongoing; persistent
  49. powers of president, congress
    • president
    • Constitutional Powers (expressed and inherent/implied)
    • Solemnly swears to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States”
    • Commander in chief of the military
    • Make treaties (which are later ratified by the Senate)
    • Executive agreements Appoints ambassadors
    • congress
  50. attentive public
    portion of general public that pays attention to policy issues
  51. military-industrial complex
    the mutually beneficial relationship between the armend forces and defense contractors
  52. major foreign policy themes
  53. oNegative” foreign policy during 1700 and 1800’s (Isolationism)
    • nMistrust of Europe
    • nMilitarily weak
    • nShaped by the Monroe Doctrine (no new European colonies in the Western Hemisphere; no European intervention; no US intervention in European affairs)
    • oSpanish–American War and World War I
    • nSeen as temporary entanglements
    • nLasted from 1898-1918
    • nFollowed by a resurgence of isolationism
    • Era of Internationalism
    • nBegan with bombing of Pearl Harbor and U.S. entry into World War II
    • nResulted in significant increases in defense spending
    • nAmerica emerged from World War II with a strengthened economy
    • nAmerica was first nuclear superpower
  54. Cold War
    the ideological political and economic confrontation between the US and Soviet Union following WWII
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