Exam 2

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  1. How do non-ionophore antibiotics work?
    Produced by a living organism to inhibit the growth of another organism

    reduce infections in the digestive and respiratory tract caused by bacteria
  2. How do animal age, sanitation, and environment influence animal response to non-ionophore antibiotics?
    A mature animal in a clean environment under good management practices will not see a large improvement from non-ionophore antibiotics because they are already healthy.

    An animal in a stressful situation (such as traveling) may benefit from the antibiotics
  3. Are the publics concern about non-ionophore antibiotics justified?
    Antibiotic residue in food-residues are highly regulated, and there is little to no chance of there being any residue in livestock that consume these antibiotics. 

    Antibiotic resistance- there is little evidence that points to antibiotic use in livestock production as the cause of the antibiotic resistance. It is most likely a cause of improper use of antibiotics by humans.
  4. How do ionophore bacteria work?
    synthetic compounds that destroy gam positive bacteria in the rumen. 

    • Reduction of gram positive bacteria results in: 
    • *improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization
    • * greater propionate production (increases efficiency) 
    • *reduced methane production
  5. what is a chemotherapeutic agent?
    synthetic organic or inorganic compound that inhibits the growth of pathogenic or parasitic organisms
  6. What are coccidostats?
    used to prevent and treat coccidiosis
  7. what is an antihelmenthic?
    A dewormor
  8. What are probiotics?
    organisms produced from specific microbial cultures that flourish in the GIT and compete with harmful organisms

    naturally produced in the gut

    little evidence to justify economically
  9. What are antioxidants used for in feed?
    They are compounds that prevent rancidity

    Usually mixed with high fat ingredients
  10. Why do we use chemical preservatives?
    used to prevent product deterioration

    • ascorbic acid
    • citric acid
    • porpionic acid
  11. What is melengesterol acetate (MGA) and what is it used for?
    • fed to feed lot heifers to suppress estrous
    • similar to progesterone 
    • prevents heifers from expressing estrous 
    • prevents undesirable behavior
  12. What are beta-agonists and what are they used for?
    Orally active compounds that repartition nutrients towards lean muscle deposition and away from fat deposition

    significantly increase red meat production

    Only effective for a small period of time. Generally used for a short period at the end of the late finishing stage.
  13. Why does the U.S government regulate feed additives in animal diets?
    to ensure the safety of human foods

    production animals are consumed by animals and indirectly we consume what they consume
  14. What agencies regulate feed-additive use in animal diets?
    • Food and Drug Adm. (FDA)
    • US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    • Various state regulatory agencies

    American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) - responsible for establishing standards for 'good manufacturing practices' and labeling of livestock feed and pet food
  15. What are the 7 elements that must appear on a feed label?
    • 1. quantity 
    • 2. production name and purpose
    • 3. guaranteed nutrient analysis
    • 4. Ingredient composition
    • 5. Directions for use
    • 6. precautionary statement
    • 7. name and address of manufacturer
  16. Define type A medicated feed?
    premixes manufactured medicated type B feed
  17. Define type-B medicated feed?
    premixes used to manufacture medicated type C-feed
  18. Define type-C medicated feed
    intended to be fed without further mixing
  19. What additional labeling information is required for medicated feed?
    The word 'medicated' must immediately follow the product name

    purpose of medication - label claim

    AAFCO - accepted name of each drug component

    When applicable, withdrawl statements, cautionary statements, and warning statements
  20. Explain category I of feed-additive drugs
    Low risk of tissue residues

    no pre-harvest withdrawal period is required
  21. Explain category II of feed-additive drugs
    preharvest withdrawal is required or there is a zero tolerance policy for residues.
  22. why are animal diets processed?
    • Improves:
    • animal performance 
    • mixing characteristics
    • feed handling and storage

    simplifies bunk, or feed management
  23. What are the strengths of a hammer mill?
    • easily produces a wide range of particle sizes
    • accommodates a wider variety of ingredients
    • not as expensive as a roller mill
    • easier to operate
  24. what are the disadvantages of a hammer mill?
    • less energy efficient than roller mills
    • generates a lot of heat, dust, and noise 
    • less uniform particle size
  25. what are the advantages of a roller mill as compared to a hammer mill?
    • more energy efficient
    • greater particle size uniformity
    • generates less heat, dust, and noise
  26. what are the disadvantages of a roller mill as compared to a hammer mill?
    • poor performance with fibrous material
    • more expensive
  27. How is particle size significant in feed manufacturing?
    Smaller particles can increase nutrient digestion

    Smaller particles are more maintenance intensive to handle and manufacture
  28. what is angle of repose?
    a measure of how steeply a feed can be piled before it naturally collapses
  29. What factors affect angle of repose?
    • particle size
    • fat content
    • ground in hammer or roller (hammer more likely to cause bridging)
  30. What are the benefits of a horizontal paddle mixer?
    • Can handle variety of blends, including liquid
    • capable of handling smaller batches then some mixers (as low as 10% capacity)
    • easiest to clean
    • least likely to have 'dead spots'
    • minimal heating from friction
  31. What are the disadvantages of horizontal paddle mixers?
    longer mixing time
  32. What are the benefits of a horizontal ribbon mixer?
    • lower mixing time then paddle mixers
    • clean up is relatively easy
    • good for turning out a feed with few ingredients in large batches
  33. What are the disadvantages of horizontal ribbon mixers?
    • Must be filled to 70% capacity to work properly
    • substantial heating from friction
    • Ribbons must be constantly inspected for wear
  34. What are the benefits of a rotating drum mixer?
    • inexpensive
    • good for mixing the same diet all the time
    • portable
  35. what are the disadvantages of a rotating drum mixer?
    • less efficient then other horizontal mixers
    • does not work well with liquid ingredients or coarse material
    • clean out is difficutl
  36. what are the benefits of verticle mixers?
    • inexpensive
    • suitable for small operations
  37. what are the disadvantages of a vertical mixers?
    • less efficient then horizontal mixers
    • do not work well with liquid or fibrous ingredients
    • clean out is difficult
  38. what are the advantages of an auger mixer?
    • used exclusively in ruminant diets
    • handles forages and roughages
    • horizontal sometimes have grinding capabilities
  39. What are the disadvantages of auger mixers?
    less efficient
  40. How is mixer efficiency measured?
    Add a known amount of salt(NaCl) and measure the salt levels at different points all around the batch. There is generally an allowance of about 10% variation

    Salt is its own ingredient and isn't found in any other feed ingredients so we can measure salt exclusively and compare for even mixing.
  41. How do feed manufacturers prevent feed residue contamination?
    • Pay attention to sequence of ingredients
    • Pay attention to sequence of diets
    • Be aware that electrostatic charges can cause ingredients to adhere to the sided and equipment
    • Flush mixer with ground corn
  42. What is the general order in which feeds should be added to a mixer?
    • 1. Half the grain
    • 2. Protein source
    • 3. premixes and medications
    • 4. Half the grain
  43. How do heat, moisture and pressure affect the structure and digestibility of starch?
    • disrupts protein granules surrounding starch granules 
    • gelatinizes starch granules 
    • increases ruminal starch fermentation, which in turn increases feed efficiency, growth and milk production
  44. How does a steam flaker work?
    Steam the grain and then smoosh it between 2 rolls

    • Used primarily for ruminant feed
    • Increases energy value of grains
    • Increases ruminal digestion of starch
    • Increases ruminal protein availability
  45. How does a pellet mill work?
    ground feed are forced through a die after undergoing steam and pressure
  46. How does pelleting influence diet characteristics?
    increases ADG and F:G in monogastrics
  47. How do extruders work?
    • Material forced through cylinder w/ auger
    • Packed into prgresssively smaller space ^ heat and friction
    • Heat, pressure, and shear alter ingredient structure
    • Forced through small die at end of cylinder
    • Expansion occurs due to sudden change in pressure.
  48. How does expansion work?
    Similar to extrusion, but pressure is controlled with plunger at the end of the expander barrel
  49. How doe extruders an expanders influence diet characteristics?
    produces higher quality pellets then unexpanded
Card Set
Exam 2
Chapters 8-13 8. Non-nutrative feed additives 9. Feed tags and regulations 10. Grinding and mixing 11. Thermal feed processing 12. Weaning Pigs 13. Growing and finishing pigs
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