Microbiology Chapter 16.txt

  1. Epstein-Barr virus description
    • Icosahedral with envelope
    • dsDNA herpes virus
    • Epstein-Barr virus
  2. Diseases caused by Epstein-Barr virus
    • Infectious mononucleosis
    • Epstein-Barr, (chronic fatigue syndrome)
    • Burkitt's lymphoma
  3. Infectious mononucleosis symptoms
    • Enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, fever
    • It particularly affects B lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and spleen
    • Many children are infected and show no symptoms
    • Adolescents or young adults who are infected may develop EBV disease (a precursor of mononucleosis)
  4. Infectious mononucleosis is caused by
    It is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  5. Infectious mononucleosis is spread by
    • It is spread by contact with saliva
    • After recovery, the individual remains a carrier for several months
    • They can shed the virus in their saliva
  6. Downey cells
    Damaged B cells with vacuolated and granulated cyptoplasm
  7. Monospot test
    • Test for mononucleosis
    • Have Ab that Xreact
    • Serum + sheep RBC's = agglutination
  8. Infectious mononucleosis complications include
    • heart defects
    • facial paralysis
    • rupture of the spleen
    • jaundice (hepatitis)
  9. Infectious mononucleosis diagnosis involves observation of
    • elevated lymphocyte levels
    • presence of Downey cells (damaged B cells)
    • Antibodies can be detected by the Monospot test
    • No vaccine or drugs for treatment are available
  10. EBV is associated with
    • Burkitt lymphoma, a tumor of the jaw prevalent in Africa
    • T cell malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    • B cell lymphomas
    • Hodgkin disease
    • Multiple sclerosis
  11. Hepatitis A virus
    • Picornaviridae
    • cuboidal
    • ssRNA
  12. Hepatitis A transmission by
    • fecal-oral route
    • shellfish
  13. Hepatitis A symptoms
    • Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fever, pain, dark urine, jaundice
    • Incubation period: 2-4 weeks
    • Enlargement of the liver and jaundice may follow initial symptoms of hepatitis A
  14. Hepatitis A vaccine
    • Three vaccines are available for different age groups
    • Havrix
    • Vaqta
    • Twinex
  15. Hepatitis B virus
    • Hepadnavirus with 2 shells, (Dane particle)
    • DNA
  16. Hepatitis B Virions consist of:
    • A nucleocapsid surrounded by a core antigen (HBcAg)
    • An envelope containing a surface antigen (HBsAg)
  17. Hepatitis B transmission methods
    Contact with body fluids
  18. Hepatitis B symptoms
    • Anorexia, fatigue, taste changes
    • Jaundice occurs after primary symptoms
    • Recovery occurs 3-4 months after the onset of jaundice, after which an immunity is developed
    • Persistent infections, cirrhosis, or liver cancer occur rarely
  19. Hepatitis B Incubation
    • 4 weeks to 6 months
    • Hepatitis B vaccine
    • Several vaccines and drugs for treatment are available
  20. Hepatitis C virus
    • RNA virus (HCV)
    • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family
  21. Hepatitis C symptoms
    • Few symptoms are associated with primary infection
    • Most cases develop a symptomless chronic infection, involving cirrhosis and other complications
    • HCV damage is the primary reason for liver transplants in the U.S.
    • Damage is accelerated by alcoholism and drug use
  22. Hepatitis C transmission
    It is transmitted by blood
  23. Other viruses also cause hepatitis
    • Hepatitis D
    • Hepatitis E
    • Hepatitis G
  24. Hepatitis E is an
    • Opportunistic, emergent disease
    • It is caused by a member of the Caliciviridae family
    • Young adults and pregnant women are most susceptible
  25. Hepatitis D is caused by
    • Hepatitis B Virus and hepatitis D virus (HDV)
    • HDV can only damage the liver when HBV is present
  26. Hepatitis G is another chronic liver disease transmitted by
    Blood or sexual contact
  27. HIV-AIDS virus
    • 2 RNA strands
    • With capsid
    • Envelope
    • Spikes
    • Retrovirus, may lay dormant for years
  28. HIV-AIDS Syndrome was 1st identified in
  29. Who first isolated and cultured HIV and linked it to AIDS
    Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo
  30. Normal immunologic response
    • Humoral Immunity: B lymphocytes
    • Cell mediated Immunity: T lymphocytes
  31. HIV infects
    Helper T cells
  32. In HIV infection, the destruction of T cell is caused by
    • By virus
    • By own immune system
  33. HIV 2
    HIV-2 is a second type of HIV, which develops more slowly than HIV-1
  34. HIV-AIDS Diagnosis:
    • ELISA
    • Western blot
    • PCR
  35. HIV-AIDS Transmission:
    • Bodily fluids, esp. blood
    • High risk sex, needles
  36. HIV-AIDS stages
    • Stage I: acute
    • Stage II: asymptomatic
    • Stage III: persistant generalized lymphadenopathy
    • Stage IV: symptomatic HIV infection
  37. HIV-AIDS Stage I
    • Can include a flu-like illness within a month or two of exposure
    • Seroconversion means the immune system is activated against the virus, and antibodies can be detected in the blood
  38. HIV-AIDS stage II
    • the individual usually remains free of major disease, even without treatment
    • It can last 6-8 years, during which HIV levels in the blood slowly rise
  39. HIV-AIDS Stage III
    • Occurs when the immune system loses the fight against HIV
    • Symptoms worsen and opportunistic infectious develop
  40. HIV-AIDS Stage IV
    • symptomatic HIV infection
    • A: fever
    • B: neurologic disease
    • C: secondary infections
    • D: secondary cancers
    • E: immunosuppression
  41. HIV-AIDS Opportunistic infections
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Candidiasis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Karposi's sarcoma
    • Fever, Night sweats
  42. HIV Treatment
    • Azidothymidine, known as AZT
    • Reverse transcriptase inhibitors that interfere with the viral genome replication
    • Protease inhibitors that interfere with the processing step of capsid production
    • Fusion inhibitors which block viral entry into CD4 cells
    • Integrase that blocks provirus formation
  43. AZT
    • Azidothymidine
    • AZT interferes with reverse transcriptase activity and acts as a chain terminator as it inhibits DNA synthesis.
  44. Hantavirus
    • AKA Sin Nombre, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
    • Shed from the saliva, urine and feces of the deer mouse
    • Humans are infected by breathing the infectious aerosolized dried urine or feces
  45. Early hantavirus symptoms include
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Muscle aches
    • Half of the patients experience dizziness, difficulty breathing and low blood pressure that can lead to respiratory failure as the lungs fill with fluid.
  46. Rotavirus
    • The deadliest form of gastroenteritis in children
    • Transmission occurs by ingesting contaminated food or water (fecal-oral route) or from contaminated surfaces
    • Infest the small intestine where they infect the enterocytes, the cells lining the epithelium Diarrhea, vomiting and chills
    • The disease lasts 3-8 days
  47. Norovirus
    • The most likely cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in adults.
    • Transmitted through the fecal-oral route,
    • Consumption of contaminated food or water
    • Person-to-person contact
    • Aerosols produced from a vomiting episode
    • Contaminated surfaces may be a source of infection as the virus can survive a week or longer
    • As few as 10 virions can cause illness
    • 24-48 hour incubation period followed by
    • Fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and extensive vomiting
    • Lasts 24 hours and recovery is complete.
  48. Enterovirus
    Transmitted by contaminated food or water or person to person contact. Symptoms include fever, mild rash, mild upper respiratory tract illness.
  49. Viral Gastroenteritis symptoms
    • Diarrhea
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Fever
    • Cramping
    • Headache
    • Malaise
  50. Rabies mortality
    It has the highest mortality rate of any human disease
  51. Animal rabies occurs in
    warm-blooded animals
  52. Rabies transmission
    It enters the body through a skin wound contaminated with a bodily fluid from an infected animal
  53. Rabies incubation
    • The incubation period varies from 6 days to 1 year
    • It depends on the location of entry and the amount of virus entering the body
  54. Rabies symptoms
    • Fever, headache, and increased muscle tension develop
    • Patients become alert and aggressive, followed by paralysis and brain degeneration
    • Death from respiratory paralysis occurs within days
  55. Rabies vaccination
    • Post-exposure immunization can be done immediately after exposure
    • Rabies symptoms in animals:
    • Furious rabies involves violent symptoms like:
    • wide eyes
    • Drooling
    • unprovoked attacks
    • Animals with dumb rabies are docile and lethargic
  56. Animal vaccines
    Wild animals are vaccinated with inoculated dog food and fish meal
  57. Polio (poliomyelitis) infects
    The gray matter of the spinal cord and brain
  58. Polioviruses enter the body through
    Contaminated food and water
  59. Polioviruses multiply in
    • Tonsils
    • Lymph Tissue
    • Gastrointestinal Tract
    • Sometimes the viruses pass through the bloodstream to the meninges
    • This can result in paralysis of limbs and trunk
  60. In bulbar polio, the viruses infects
    • The medulla, affecting nerves in the:
    • neck
    • face
    • upper torso
  61. Trivalent vaccines contain
    All 3 types of poliovirus
  62. Postpolio syndrome occurs
    In individuals who had the disease decades ago
  63. There are 3 types of polioviruses identified
    • Type 1 causes a major number of epidemics and sometimes paralysis.
    • Type 2 occurs sporadically by invariably causes paralysis.
    • Type 3 usually remains in the intestinal tract.
  64. West Nile fever
    An emerging disease in the Western hemisphere
  65. West Nile Fever can infect
    • Birds, mosquitoes, humans, and some other mammals
    • Humans generally contract it through mosquito bites
    • West Nile Fever symptoms
    • Many infected people remain asymptomatic, or are ill for a few days
    • Rarely, the patient will develop encephalitis or meningitis
    • This can result in permanent neurologic effects or death
    • There is no vaccine or specific treatment for West Nile fever
  66. Arbovirus
    Arthopod borne virus
  67. Jaundice
    A condition in which bile pigments seep into the circulator system causing the skin and whites of the eyes to have a dull yellow color
  68. Breakbone fever
    Dengue fever. A sudden high fever and prostration are followed by sharp pains in the muscles and joints. Patients often report intense joint and muscle pain.
  69. Downey cells
    The damaged B cells with vacuolated and granulated cytoplasm
  70. Heterophile antibodies
    Antibodies nonspecifically reacting with proteins or cells from unrelated animal species. The Monospot test uses guinea pig and horse cells.
  71. Epstein-Barr virus
    Causes mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma and has been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, B cell lymphomas, Hodgkin disease, Multiple sclerosis
  72. Burkitt's Lymphoma
    A tumor of the connective tissues of the jaw prevalent in Africa caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Malaria may be a contributing factor.
  73. Immune globulin
    Consists of antibodies concentrated from the serum of blood donors and can be used for people without known immunity to a virus such as Hepatitis B.
  74. HBsAg
    Hepatitis B surface antigen: A normal hepatitis virions envelope
  75. HBcAg
    Hepatitis B core antigen: an antigen of the DNA core of the hepatitis B virus. It surrounds the nucleocapsid.
  76. Opportunistic infection
    Infections that occur when the immune system is weakened by fighting another disease.
  77. Rotavirus
    One the deadliest forms of gastroenteritis in children. There is a vaccination introduced in 2006.
  78. Norovirus
    • The most likely cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in adults. Formerly called Norwalk-like virus.
    • Spread by person to person contact or aerosols produced from vomiting.
  79. Hemorrhagic fever
    Illnesses characterized by vascular system damage (rash, bleeding gums and mucous membranes, internal bleeding).
  80. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
    Fatigue, fever, muscle aches, headache, dizziness, breathing difficulty. Lungs will fill with fluid.
  81. Cytomegalovirus
    The largest member of herpesviridae, it can cause serious birth defects. It can cause a mononucleosis like infection in healthy individuals.
  82. HIV infection
    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Is Responsible for HIV Disease and AIDS
  83. HAART
    When 3 or more drugs are used together, the combination is referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  84. Hydrophobia
    The fear of water.
  85. Encephalitis
    An inflammation of the brain.
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Microbiology Chapter 16.txt
Microbiology Chapter 16.txt