Chapter 29: Plants

  1. Plants are eukaryotic, primarily ____ organisms that mostly live on land and display many adaptations to life in terrestrial habitats
  2. Plants most likely evolved from ____ ancestors
  3. Ancestry: ____ kingdom
  4. Probably originated from a single common ____ ancestor.  Either Chara or Coleochaete are modern ____ most closely related to ancestry of land plants.
  5. 10 plant phyla: ___, ___, ___, lycophytes, pteridophytes, cycads, ginkgos, conifers, gnetophytes, angiosperms
    liverworts, mosses, hornworts
  6. ____ include liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. Monophyletic phyla, share common structural, reproductive, and ecological features. Models of earliest plants. Found in ____ habitats.
    Bryophytes; moist
  7. Bryophytes display features absent from charophycean ____ but present in plants. Likely early adaptations to ____.
    algae; land
  8. Charophycean display a ____ life cycle with a one cell diploid zygote.
  9. Bryophytes and other plants display a ____ life cycle with alternation of generations
  10. Sporic life cycle has ____ multicellular life stages.
  11. ____ ____ - produces haploid spores by meiosis
    ____ ____ - produces gametes by mitosis
    • diploid sporophyte
    • haploid gametophyte
  12. Gametophytes:
    Produces ____ gametes.
  13. ____ protects developing gametes from drying out and microbial attack.
  14. ____ - round or elongate gametangia producing sperm
    ____ - flask shaped gametangia enclosing an egg
    • antheridia
    • archegonia
  15. Sperm swim to egg and fuse to form ____ zygote. Zygotes grow into ____.
    diploid; sporophytes
  16. Sporophytes:
    ____ remain sheltered and fed within gametophyte tissue.
  17. Young sporophytes are ____
  18. When mature, spores are produced in protective enclosures known as ____
  19. Plant spore cell walls contain ____ to help prevent cellular damage.
  20. During evolution, plant sporophytes become ____ and more ____
    larger; complex
  21. Distinguishing bryophyte features:
    Gametophytes ___ generation. Sporophytes are dependent on gametophyte and ___ and ___. ____ or lacking tissues for structural support and conduction found in other plants.
    dominant; small and short-lived; nonvascular
  22. Lycophytes and pteridophytes:
    Collectively called: ____ ____ plants. ____ - more numerous and larger in the past but now about 1000 relatively small species. ____ - about 12,000 species of ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns.
    seedless vascular; lycophytes; pteridophytes
  23. Diverged prior to the origin of seeds. Seedless vascular plants. Bryophytes are ___ and ____.
    Lycophytes, pteridophytes, and seed-producing plants are ____ plants or tracheophytes. Possess tracheids for water and mineral conduction and structural support.
    seedless and nonvascular; vascular
  24. Roots, stems, and leaves
    Produce specialized organs like other tracheophytes. Stems contain vascular tissue and produce leaves and reproductive structures. Contain ____ & ____. Roots are specialized for the uptake of ____ and ____ from the soil. Leaves are the ____ function.
    ploem & xylem; water and minerals; photosynthetic
  25. Adaptations that foster stable internal water content:
    Waxy ____ present on most surfaces of vascular plant sporophytes that prevents pathogen attack.  ____ prevents desiccation. ____ are pores that open and close to allow gas exchange while minimizing water loss
    cuticles; wax; stomata
  26. ____ include cycads, ginkos, conifers, and gnetophytes. Reproduce using ____ and ____. Seeds protect and provide energy for young sporophyte. "Naked seeds" meaning seeds are not enclosed by ____.
    Gymnosperms; spores and seeds; fruit
  27. Angiosperms:
    Distinguished by the presence of ____ and ____.
    flowers and endosperms
  28. ____ enhance seed production. Fruits develop from flowers and enclose the seed and foster seed dispersal. ____ is a nutritive seed tissue with increased storage efficiency.
    Flowers; Endosperm
  29. Evolutionary history of land plants:
    Terrestrial surface was bare ____ years ago. Some ____ crusts.
    a billion; cyanobacteria
  30. Origin of land plants essential to the development of substantial ____, ____ of modern plants, and ____ colonizing land.
    soils, evolution, animals
  31. Molecular approaches:
    Compare ____ sequences from diverse plants. Analysis shows pteridophytes to be ____.
    gene; monophyletic
  32. Use of fossils
    Tough plant compounds help to preserve plant structures. Compared modern ____ treated to degrade all but the most resistant plant materials and found similarities with particular fossils.
  33. 3 steps to plants conquering land:
    - aquatic charophycean ____ give rise to the first land-adapted plants
    - seedless plants transform Earth's ____ and ____
    - ancient cataclysm marks the rise of ____
    algae; atmosphere and climate; angiosperms
  34. Critical innovations in plant evolutions: ____, ____, and ____
    embryos, leaves, and seeds
  35. Embryo:
    absent from charophyceans (algae); first distinctive trait acquired by land plants; ____ is another name for plants; 3 features: multicellular and diploid, develop by repeated mitosis from a single-celled zygote, and depends on organic and mineral materials supplied by mother plant - placental transfer tissues.
  36. Placental transfer tissue:
    cells specialized to promote ____ of solute from from gametophyte to embryo; finger-like cell-wall ingrowths; dissolved sugars, amino acids, and minerals
  37. Leaves:
    Capture sunlight for ____. Lycophytes produce simplest, most ancient leaves called ____ or microphylla. Other vascular plants have leaves with extensively branched veins-____ or megaphylls.
    lycophylls; euphylls
  38. Seeds:
    ____ - sporangium with single spore and a very small egg-producing gametophyte inside
    Seed plants produce two types of spore in 2 types of sporangia: micro - ____ mega - ____
    ovule; male, female
  39. Male gametophyte carries 2 sperm, one fertilizes ____, and the other fuses with gametophyte tissue to form ____.
    egg; endosperm
  40. ____ ovules do NOT store food materials prior to fertilizations.
Card Set
Chapter 29: Plants