mus 351A midterm

  1. what writers allowed us to reconstruct the ancient music theory
    plato and aristotle
  2. what was the purpose of myths
    mans attempt to impose order upon the universe
  3. heterophony
    texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line 

    realized at the same time in multiple voices, each of which plays the melody differently (different rhythm, or tempo or embellishments or elaborations)
  4. harmonia
    concept of an orderly whole divisible by parts
  5. symposium
    organized occasion for men, while conversing and drinking
  6. hymn
    sung to a god (greek)
  7. paean
    stately hymn that celebrated a specific god
  8. dithyramb
    wild choral song in honor of dionysus
  9. skilion
    a song setting of a brief lyric poem
  10. who discovered the numerical relationships that were the foundation of intervals
  11. who believed that music could affect an individuals character
    socrates plato and aristotle
  12. rhetoric
    concerned with the modes of persuasion 

    must be able to reason logically - understand human character- understand emotions (from aristotle's rhetoric

    rhetorical modes include: argumentation, exemplification, description, narration, classification, defninition etc.
  13. define modus
    greek - a way or manner of expression or movement according to plato a melos (song) was expressed through the movement, melody and tonal material (modi)
  14. what was the basic musical scale unit of ancient greece
    tetrachord literally meaning four strings
  15. what is the trivium
    • grammar (words to produce effects)
    • rhetoric ( art of persuasion)
    • dialectic (use of logic in argument and teaching)

    the three verbal arts in ancient greece
  16. what is the quadrivium
    • arithmetic ( study of theories about numbers)
    • astronomy (model of the universe (plato's))
    • geometry ( studies ratios between objects)
    • music (expression of numerical relationships in sound)

    the four scientific arts
  17. What are some of the ancient instruments
    • lyra
    • barbitos
    • cithara
    • phorminx
    • pandouris
  18. why was the fall of the roman empire significant
    • civilization fell with it
    • -feudalism developed over time

    most education and technology was lost

    church became the center of life
  19. why did the roman empire fall
    military and bloated government caused a lack of money

    elite avoided taxes

    peasants were over taxed and fled

    manpower shortages caused military to hire germans 

    when rome was attacked the government colapposed
  20. what is economic feudalism
    refers to the relationship between a lord and his peasants, serfs and slaves
  21. what is political feudalism
    the relationship between the nobles and the king
  22. what was the societal order in feudalism
    top > bottom

    pope/church> monarch>nobles>knights/vassals>merchants/farmers/craftsmen>phesants/serfs>slaves
  23. what was the position of the church in mideval life
    very top of social ladder

    emphasized that loyalty and service be given to god

    christ was a warrior
  24. st augustine of hippo
    influental in the rise of monastic life 

    wrote his treatise confessions
  25. benedict of nursia
    wrote rule of st benedict

    its a set of rules for ascetic living and monastic stability- based on roman military system

    • regulated monasteries with a social hierarchy
    • bishop>archbishop>arch deacon> abbot>prior>dean>monks

    he opened many small monasteries in italy
  26. how did music relate to the early church
    church was a patron of the arts

    most musicians trained in the church

    Most notated music was church music

    Music was used in every daily service in the monasteries
  27. what is the liturgy
    The rights and rituals of the holy Roman Catholic Church in their worship services
  28. What is the liturgy of the hours

    names and when
    • matins at sunrise
    • prime at the first hour of daylight
    • terce at the third hour
    • sext at the sixth hour
    • none at the ninth hour
    • vespers at the end of the day
    • compline upon retiring
    • vigils sometime during the night
  29. What is the Eucharist
    Developed out of Jesus directing his disciples to remember him through symbolic breaking of bread and drinking from a wine cup
  30. What is a mass
    Eucharist with scripture readings and psalm reciting borrowed from synagogues
  31. what parts of the mass are in the ordinary
    • kyrie
    • gloria (not in lent or advent)
    • credo
    • sanctus
    • agnus dei
  32. what parts of the mass are in the proper
    chants for feast days 

    not in every day

    change daily
  33. what are the 3 types of chant
    • cantus directus - song sung by the whole choir
    • cantus antiphonalis - divided choirs into two sides
    • cantus responsarius - precentor sings verses with uneven numbers while choir/congregaion sings the even numbers
  34. who standardized plainchant
    pope gregory 1
  35. what are some characteristics of plainchant
    nonmetrical, based on medieval modes, monophonic

    • melody rarely exceeds a fifth
    • melody is built on the grammatical accents of the words
  36. dorian
    starts on d reciting tone is a
  37. hypodorian
    starts on d reciting tone is f
  38. phyrigian
    final is e reciting tone is c
  39. hypophyrigian
    final is e reciting tone is a
  40. lydian
    final is f reciting tone is c
  41. hypolydian
    final is f reciting tone is a
  42. mixolydian
    final is G reciting tone is d
  43. hypomixolydian
    final is G reciting tone is c
  44. 3 styles of plainchant
    • syllabic 
    • neumatic
    • melismatic (also called florid)
  45. how was the style of a piece of plainchant determined?
    location of melody in the liturgy (melodies for divine office were more complex than the mass)

    degree of solemnity (melodies that ended the day or commemorated something specific were more complex than normal chant)

    ability of performers (congregation singing? priest singing? choir singing?
  46. what are the 3 types of arch form
    variation 1 - begins on 4 or 5 and goes down toward the final

    variation 2 - starts high goes below ends on final

    variation 3 - melody centers on specific note usually final (rare)
  47. what is monostrophic and what composition is monostrophic
    one melody over and over

  48. polystrophic define and give an example
    different melodies

  49. strophic
    characterized by the literal and immediate repetition of melodic sections of the same length
  50. psalmodic composition
    psalm texts are composed to a number of non-metrical verses of which each is divided into two  members that balance each other as antecedent and consequent
  51. commatic compositions
    sections of free composition

    made of centos
  52. cento
    fragments of music that have a unique melodic design that appears with several others to make commatic compositions
  53. guidonian hand
    In Medieval music, the Guidonian hand was a mnemonic device used to assist singers in learning to sight-sing. Some form of the device may have been used by Guido of Arezzo,
  54. liber gradulais
    • first printed gradual
    • - liturgical book containing the chants of the mass
  55. what was the first printed book containing the chants of the mass
    liber gradulais
  56. micrologos
    The Micrologus is a treatise on Medieval music written by Guido of Arezzo,

     This treatise outlines singing and teaching practice for Gregorian chant, and has considerable discussion of the composition of polyphonic music.
  57. who was guido d'arezzo
    benedictine monk

    developed a system of notation which allowed for the transcription of music onto manuscript

    he also developed the solfeggio system

    The Micrologus is a treatise on Medieval music written by Guido of Arezzo
  58. talk about hildegard von bingen
    • -abbess - built her own convent
    • - had visions which were recorded in her book scivias
    •      - had migraines which may have caused these "visions"
    • - wrote books on theology, medicine, and sciences
    • - composed many works of music
    •     - her chants tended to be more complex due to her lack of formal training
    •     - primarily nematic but many are melismatic
    •     - requires a wide vocal range and uses word painting
  59. Kunstprosa
    German word for elevated discourse between poetry and prose in style

    hildegard used it a lot
  60. troubadour and trouveres
    • troubadour - male lyric poet from south France
    • wrote in langue d'oc

    • Trouveres - male lyric poet musician from north france 
    • wrote in langue d'oil

    serious and well educated and highly educated

    combined music and poetry in the ideal of romantic love or fin' amors

    first large body of secular music (found in chansonieeres)
  61. fin' amors
    relationship based on social and personal benefits of love

    "romantic love"

    written by men usually not uplifting to women
  62. de amore
    book by andreas capellanus defines love as an inborn suffering from the sight of and meditation upon the beauty of the opposite sex

    said that love had no place in medieval marriages
  63. what are the formes fixes
    ballade - 3 strophes with a final shorter strophe

    lai - 3 indépendant strophes

    virelai - 3 strophes each opening and closing with a refrain

    rondeau - originally 4 couplets or tercets, they use the first verse as a reoccurring refrain, form expanded and stopped being used in musical settings
  64. the trobaritz
    largest body of women's lyric poetry to have been composed during the medieval period

    • woman who composes

    • la countess de dia "beatritz" is well known
    • -has four surviving songs
  65. minnesigeren
    medieval secular musicians that mostly wrote about love

    professional musicians often of noble birth 

    wrote minnelieder (their music style)
  66. what are some characteristics of minnelieder
    one strophe divided into 3 parts

    • first two correspond to each other but third is metrically connected but independent (AAB)
    •    - this is german bar form

    3 kinds of rhyme

    • masculine - rhyme of one ending syllable
    • feminine - rhymes of two or more syllable
    • disyllabic words could also be shortened to make rhyme sagen > sag'n
  67. meistersingeren
    german musicians slightly after the medieval period

    they were amateur musicians that were not royalty but tradesmen

    sang meisterlieder
  68. characteristics of meistersingeren songs or meisterlieder
    borrowed poetic material from minnesingeren but insisted on new melodic material 

    still used german bar form AAB

    melodies adhered to the modal system but begin to be tonal

    had extended unaccompanied melismatic passages called blumen
  69. de nuptiis philogiae et mercurii
    book that reestablished the trivium and quadrivium into medieval education
  70. boethius
    philosopher and mathematician who set out to revitalize the relationship between the church in rome and constantinople

    • de institutione musica
    •  - important treatise that consists of an exact translation of the principal greek texts on classical music theory and the quadrivium

    • alignes music and philosophy
    • -musica humana - harmony of body and spirit
    • -musica mundada - harmony of the cosmos
    • -musica instrumentalis - music as a mathematical science between mathematics and philosophy
  71. musica enhiriadis

    • develops a notational system for music
    • has vocal exercises
    • basic musical and mathematic terminology

    discusses consonances of octave 4th and 5th and their use in simultaneous singing

    discusses music and mathematical proportion

    adresses the interpretation of the orpheus myth
  72. organum
    defined as singing in 4ths and 5ths
  73. parallell organum
    all voices travel and preserve the same intervals throughout
  74. organum purum
    sustained tenor with a free flowing upper voice
  75. oblique motion
    one voice stays while another moves

    created to avoid the tritone
  76. leonin
    • composed organi and three voiced conducti
    • created the magnus liber organi
    • - collection of organi for the mass and divine hours

    his polyphonic musical settings were difficult and required trained musicians
  77. magnus liber organi
    book by leonin that contains organi for the mass and divine hours

    one of the first sources containing a system for measuring and notating musical rhythms. ( 6 rhythmic modes)
  78. causula
    each section involved in the descant style (each musical phrase) 

    Latin: “clause”: ) plural Clausulae,  in music, a 13th-century polyphonic genre featuring two strictly measured parts: notable examples are the descant sections based on the Gregorian chantmelisma (several notes to a syllable), which in the organa of the Notre-Dame school alternated with sections featuring coloratura-like passages in relatively free rhythm above a slower-moving cantus firmus.Clausulae early gained independent status as untexted “substitute” compositions. The first noted composer of such “substitute” clausulae was Pérotin, the successor of Léonin, whose name is forever associated with the two-part organa of the Parisian School. The motet, of only slightly later origin, was in essence a texted clausula. In the clausula the late-medieval, dance-influenced system of rhythmic modes found its first systematic application.
  79. 6 rhythmic modes
    defined musical rhythms based on the meter 6/8
  80. perotin
    most esteemed composer of discant

    developed imitation, exchange of parts, and melodic variation

    • organi consisted of cantos which formed the tenor or cantos firmus
    • -would add one (duplum) two (triplum) or Three (quadruplum) other voices 
    • -all in the same vocal range and using the rhythmic modi

    created a modular design, constructs units of shaped phrases that are used and repeated within the voices to create unity

    first real composer (composer has replaced the improviser)
  81. philippe le chancelier
    used his conducti to battle his enemies and the pope by using satirical and allegorical texts

    he is much more secular sounding (no chant)

    created conductus and used  discant and used caudae
  82. caudae
    a long melisma used to accent a word

    may appear anywhere in the conductus
  83. conductus
    • sung as processional pieces at gatherings
    • not liturgical - may be used as musical accompaniments to the movements of characters in lurtigical dramas

    many were sung around around christmas

    all contain a refrain

    sung as discant
  84. discant
    all voices travel at the same tempo and create consonances on the strong beats
  85. motet
    voices proclaim a different text (multi textual and frequently multi lingual) 

    latin chant with additional voices singing above it (usually in french)
  86. two voiced motet
    basic motet with a tenor and texted motetus or upper voice
  87. conductus motet
    three voiced piece where the motetus and triplum phrase together so that they sing the same text at the same time
  88. double motet
    a polytextual three voiced motet in thick the motetus and triplum have different texts

    many are polylingual
  89. custos
    the symbol at the very end of a line of music which indicates the pitch for the first note of the next line as a warning of what is to come. The custos is not commonly used in modern notation.
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