Art History III - Exam 2

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    St. Serapion 1628

    • Zurbaran specialized in Pius religious imagery.
    • St. Serapion wasn't yet a saint but close to sainthood.
    • Born in England/held hostage in Algeres
    • Tied up, shown in dramatic lighting with life size scale so viewer can relate to him being imprisoned.
    • Presented w/ spanish looks, another way of relating to viewer.
    • It's not presenting a story but presenting something to admire.
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    • The Spinners (The Fable of Arachne) Diego Velasquez 1657
    • Court painter to Philip IVHe tended to paint fluidly where things came together far away.
    • Calabazas painting he made probably referred to an "empty head" like how a gorde is empty.
    • All this during a period where they were kind to these individuals which made Velasquez a difference kind of painter.
    • Lifesize figures in scene in act of spinning of cotton into thread.He liked using mythological stories w/ ordinary figures.
    • Blurred spokes shows motion of wheel.
    • Refers to Athena, who was challenged by Arachne and turned her into spider after making her mad."Spin the thread of life and cutting it short"
    • BG tapestry shows story, like an end result to story.
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    Seaport with Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, Lorrain, 1648

    • Focused on ideal landscape- an ideal image of the natural world, arranged better than nature itself.
    • Downplayed human figures so viewer would take in landscape more.
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    Kingdom of Flora, Poussin, 1631

    • Flora is in middle with green dress.
    • Colors are subdued since he composed first and filled color last.
    • Arranged in composition first.
    • Did not want to stimulate the eye, just the point across.
    • Paintings that were arranged a certain, would affect the mood.
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    Repentant Mary Magdalen, Charles Le Brun, 1655

    • The French Academy came along as a place to officially train artists.
    • Le Brun was first president of academy.
    • Started historical painting.
    • Mary became model of the sinner.
    • Action shot, pulling away garment, and tried to capture movements of face and portray them. Almost as if creating a way to show state of mind in facial structure.
    • Students of the academy were taught to use history to create works, king wanted to be seen as a great king.
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    Francois Girardon, Apollo Attended by the Nymphs of Thetis, 1672

    • Made for Palace of Versailles which was owned by King Louis 8th, a patron of the arts.
    • Apollo was reference for the King, a protector of the arts.
    • Apollo is seen attended by nymphs, like King was attended by servants.
    • Clustered grouping, eluding to works of Poussin.
    • Girardon "quoted" the Apollo in Vatican, ¬†same facial expression, drapery, strap for cape. Clever play in repositioning.
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    Les Fetes venitiennes, Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1717

    • Fete Gallante was a joyous outdoor party.
    • Rococo is an intimate, whimsical painting suggesting art is not all that serious.
    • Still at a time where only rich are buying art, unlike Dutch.
    • Could've seen Rubens work since he born near Dutch area.
    • Venus is on fountain to suggest there is an amorous occasion.
    • Influence¬†of shimmering comes from Venice influence.
    • He had a nervous look to his work, unlike Rubens.
    • People don't look real, maybe from his knowledge of theatrical clothing etc and his work usually has an underlying tone to theater.
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    Diana Resting After Her Bath, Francois Boucher, 1742

    • His paintings were less Rococo and a little less serious.
    • Shown in public exhibitions known as salons held every odd year.
    • Typical of Boucher's mythological paintings, his style always has nude women, graceful and effortlessly sitting on expensive fabric and as long as it was mytho than nudity was okay.
    • Bit risque for its time.
    • Men rarely appear in his works.
    • She is goddess of hunt and moon shown by bow and arrows and moon on head jewelry, and not just a regular woman.
    • Intentially shows dog genitalia since he wasn't allowed to show the woman's.
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    Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Germain Boffrand and Charles Natoire, 1732

    • Hotel means private residence and salon is a private room for the lady of the house.
    • One of the biggest rooms in the house.
    • Marriage was between 19 year old and 63 year old.
    • The room is oval w/arches and contains niches and windows.
    • Comparible to hall of mirrors in palace of Versailles, has mirrors that help with light.
    • Ornaments are made of stucco with a relationship theme such as story of Cupid and Psyche in 8 paintings.
    • Geometric/Floral designs are called arabesque.
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    Portrait of the Duchess of Chaulnes as Hebe, Jean-Marc Nattier, 1744

    • There was a use of Rococo to create allegorical portraits which were portraits of actual people as mythological characters.
    • Hebe was an ancient Greek person of beauty.
    • Eagle is symbol of Zeus.
    • Exposed breast means she not pose nude since it wasn't acceptable to do that, head was just superimposed especially since she has an 18th century head.
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    The Swing, Jean-Honore Fragonard, 1766

    • Underlying erotic tones.
    • Sculpture of putti riding dolphin stands for the surge of love.
    • It's a private moment in garden as if viewer is spying on them.
    • Shoe flying off foot was a sign of losing virginity.
    • Cupid shushing is another sign of love.
    • The tri-corn hat is known to be used hide arousal in men.
    • The swing in many rococo paintings is a euphemism for sex because of rhythmic rocking.
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    Nymph and Satyr, Clodion, 1770

    • Designed to not look finished w/some detail missing, sketchy quality.
    • These small ones were made to create larger sculptures.
    • Since it was mythology, subject was acceptable.
    • Satyrs are known to be "horny" with its leg up.
    • Active quality with dynamic figures.
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    The Scullery Maid, Jean-Simeon Chardin, 1738

    • Scullery is where all washing in the house would happen.
    • Chardin muted colors of things weren't really exuberant.
    • Showed normal day people working and a quiet reflective moment caught by Chardin.
    • Relates to when Dutch did the same to show ordinary life, genre paintings.
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    The Paralytic, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 1763

    • Piety meant devotion while Filial meant son or daughter.
    • He created multiple figure compositions.
    • Very old parents and young children helps the distinction of who is who in the comp.
    • Sheet in BG helps see steps leading up.
    • Every figure here has a job, even the dog gives the idea of nursing her puppy just like the children are nursing the ailing father.
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    Time Smoking a Picture, William Hogarth, 1761

    • Comment on taste and fraud in the arts. Hogarth Act was law to protect engravers from having their work copied.
    • Made fun of older paintings that time smoked into work, as time progresses, their value raised.
    • People would smoke the paintings to make them seem older, a dishonest tactic.
    • Putting nude butt on sculpture shows time isn't paying attention to it or caring.
    • Disrespect is shown with cutting into painting.
    • Varnish is next to him which was also used in fake aging.
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    Portrait of Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces, 1765

    • Refers to the ancient culture but not a direct copy so it goes with Royal Academy teachings.
    • Sacrificing to the 3 graces by pouring libation.
    • Graces are holding wreath, a sign of friendship which could mean its friendship piece with other person in work.
    • Nudity is also associated with 3 graces since friends don't hide anything from friends.
    • Roses elude to pleasantness and charm.
    • More modest than Nattiers Hebe piece with nudity.
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    An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, Joseph Wright of Derby, 1768

    • Painted nocturnal pieces with candles for dramatic lighting.
    • Used tenebrism but incorporated into modern british life piece.
    • Pump was used to show how air was needed to live.
    • Used basic colors of muted browns and reds.
    • Pair of young lovers paying more attention to each other.
    • Wright shows daily life of these scientists went around showing these experiments.
    • Shift from light as God to God as science instead.
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    The Death of General Wolfe, Benjamin West, 1770

    • Shows battle of Quebec City 1759.
    • Mainly invented with a conveniently placed Indian, which is a bit stereotyped.
    • Shows Wolfe dying on the battlefield as a reference to death of Christ, but not slumped over, which has been painted several times.
    • West presented this in a way that seemed accurate, but thats not how he actually died, right on the battlefield.
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    Milton Dictating to his Daughter, John Henry Fuseli, 1794

    • Interested in subjects like Shakespeare.
    • Romanticism, work considered current at the time.
    • Contributor to Shakespeare Gallery but also contributed to Milton gallery.
    • Wanted to draw from Milton stories but illustrated from "Paradise Lost", a story with Satan.
    • This isn't from Paradise Lost but actually Milton himself, a blind man.
    • He dictates with white eyes, an emphasis on his blindness with blank look on his face, like he's in another place.
    • He wasn't very skilled, his painting were skewed in many ways.
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    Portrait of Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset, Rosalba Carriera, 1737

    • Carnival's were popular in Venice which lasted 2 months sometimes.
    • Grand Tourists would plan their trip around this to be there at this time.
    • Subject is wearing carnival attire.
    • Carriera revolutionized the use of pastels since they were quick.
    • She gave a pastel as a gift after acceptance into academy.
    • Cheaper to have portrait painted in Venice than England which were usually one hand shown and half bust.
    • Her skill can be scene in rendering of fabric.
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    An Imaginary Picture Gallery w/ Views of Ancient Rome, Giovanni Panini, 1756

    • Grand Tourists purchased these veduta paintings as souvenirs.
    • Has ancient views in a more modern time.
    • Panini explored picture within picture view paintings.
    • Interior is an invention inspired by St Peters with things that could be seen in Rome at the time.
    • One is the Lacoon sculpture and the Farnese Hercules.
    • He added small figures into work for comparison of size of paintings.
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    Saints Vincent Ferrer, Hyacinth, and Luis Beltran, Giambattista Piazetta, 1735

    • Style and color scheme almost monochromatic compared to other at time that used brighter color, subdued colors, also goes with humility of work.
    • Shows 3 saints pertinent to dominican friars.
    • ZigZaging saints up to angel with finger pointing upwards holding palms.
    • Hyacinth saved the Virgin Mary statue in which statue weighed more than he could carry.
    • Vincent commited scriptures to memory so he is holding a book and has a flame over head making illusion to pentecost, gesturing like crucified like Christ.
    • Louis has cup w. serpent, reminding us he nearly poisoned while barefoot suggesting humility.
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Art History III - Exam 2
art history 3 exam 2
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