1. 1. (a) Define political socialization. (b) Describe how socioeconomic status (class), gender, and geography (rural/urban) impact political opinions (in terms of liberalism, conservatism).
    Political socialization is the process by which people acquire political beliefs and values. Socioeconomic status impacts political opinion in terms of those with low income favor govt action to benefit the poor or to promote economic equality, those with high income oppose govt interventions in the economy or to support it only when it benefits business, the rich tend to lean on the right side while the poor to the left side...upper class voters liberalism, lower class voters conservatism
  2. (a) Describe the major functions of the media being sure to discuss entertainment, news, public agenda, socialization, forum, and profits. (b) Do we have a free press in the U.S.? (c) Does it do a good job of holding people in power (public officials/government) accountable, providing a forum for a diversity of opinions and interests, and fact checking (journalistic professionalism)? (d) If not, how might the media system be reformed to make it better serve these essential functions for democracy?
    a) entertainment often aims at politically controversial issues that rise debate and political values suck as aids incest and wife battering, reporting the news provides words pictures about events facts personalities and ideas, public agenda what the govt is doing and what it ought to do, socializing teaches young ppl and immigrants about what it means to be an american, politicians can promote their beliefs audience can be included by voicing their oppinions through letters to editors and electronic communications, profits made as a result of ads private for profit public non profit...b) for the most part we have free press with limitation in the US, c) the media does a good job reporting information on changes with political system,
  3. (a) Define interest groups and describe their types. (b) Which type is the most powerful and why? (c) How do these groups exercise influence over the political process and politicians? (d) What efforts have been taken to regulate interest group influence? (e) What more could/should be done to limit the influence of particular interests over public policy?
    a) An organized group of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence policymakers economic groups business interest groups, agricultural interest groups, labor interest groups, public employee unions, interest groups for professionals, the unorganized poor, environmental groups earth day, public interest groups best interest of overall community, single interest best interest of a particular group/community b) economic interest groups, c) power over money and example would be US chamber of commerece 3 million member companies, d) Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 Provided for public disclosure Failed due to lack of enforcement mechanism United States v. Harriss (1954) confirmed its constitutionality. E)
  4. (a) Define political parties and describe their functions. (b) What is a two-party system? (c) What factors account for a two-party system in the U.S.? (d) What are the strengths and weaknesses of the two-party system? (e) Who benefits from the current system? (f) Should we introduce more proportional electoral forms that would make a multi-party system more likely? Why or why not?
    A) A group of activists who organize to win elections, operate government, and make public policy Distinct from interest groups, which don’t seek office B) a political system where two parties have a reasonable chance of winning C) creation of parties, era of one party rule, civil war and post civil war, republican ascendancy adn the progressive period, new deal period, modern period D)Historical foundations = sectional/regional and class politics Dichotomous nature of early American conflict Political socialization and party identification Commonality of views among Americans Winner-take-all electoral system plurality voting in single member district elections State and federal laws favoring two party system, E) state and federal with election laws offfering a clear advantage to the two major parties, F)
  5. a) Define voter turnout and (b) describe the effects of low voter turnout in terms of government accountability. In your opinion, (c) why does the U.S. have relatively low turnout rates? (d) What can/should be done to promote increased participation in voting? (e) Why is it important to exercise one's civic duty to vote? (f) What happens to the power of those who do turn out when large segments of the population do not?
    a) the percentage of citizens taking part in the elction process; the number of eligible voters that actually turn out on election day to cast their ballots B) Threat to representative democracy? Fewer people determining who wields political power Apathy about the political system Weakens accountability of elected officialsSatisfaction with status quo? Not a threat to democracy C) i think people need to get educated more about the political system and how each vote is a right that can make a difference, americans feel that their votes dont often count, political withdrawal, and ignorance D) a clearer understanding of the political system and a law requiring citizens to vote for their desired candidate should be place, E) every vote counts and it is a right given that should be taken advantage of, F)
  6. (a) Describe how age, education, and socioeconomic status/class impact the likelihood of voting (i.e., who votes). (b) Describe how education, class, and gender impact how voters vote. (c) What does the "average/typical" voter look like, and how do they vote? (d) What kinds of politicians are likely to be produced by these patterns; and whose interests are likely to be represented/advanced? (e) What might/should be done to broaden the range of persons who vote? (f) What might be the effect on who gains office and the policies that are pursued by government?
    A) oAge – the older you are, the more likely you are to vote oEducational attainment – The more educated you are, the more likely you are to vote oMinority status – Whites are more likely to turn out à African Americans à Latinos oIncome levels – higher income people are more likely to turn out than low income people oTwo-party competition – more competitive states tend to have higher turnout rates B)
  7. .(a) Describe the policymaking process in terms of agenda building, policy formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation. (b) Describe the general contours of tax policy, welfare policy, and environmental policy. (c) Are you concerned about the national debt? (d) Should social security be privatized? (e) Should health care remain privatized and for-profit?
    • A)
    • oAgenda building – identifying a problem, getting it on the agenda
    • oPolicy formulation – debate that occurs between government officials, the public, the media, and in campaigns
    • oPolicy adoption – selection of a strategy for addressing a problem
    • oPolicy implementation – administration of the selected policy (by bureaucrats, the courts, etc.)
    • oPolicy evaluation – public, officials and groups determine if the selected policy has the desired impact
    • B)
  8. (a) Define foreign policy and describe diplomacy, economic aid, and technical assistance. (b) What is meant by moral idealism and political realism? (c) Describe how both approaches influence U.S. foreign policy. (d) Briefly describe the history of U.S. foreign policy from isolationism to active international engagement. (e) Which strategy, unilateralism or multilateralism, is most likely to advance U.S. national interests in terms of the war on terror, the occupation of Iraq, concern about weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), the rise of China, and regional conflicts?
    A) a nations external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them Diplomacy = process by which states carry on relations with each other (can also mean settling conflicts among nations through peaceful means) Economic aid = assistance to other nations through grants, loans or credits to buy the assisting nation’s products Technical assistance = sending individuals with expertise in agriculture, engineering or business to aid other nations B) Moral idealism = views nations as willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct; tied to liberal institutionalism, international organizations (e.g., UN, WTO) Political realism = sees each nation acting principally in its own interest; tied to realpolitik; emphasis on anarchy at the international system level; maximizing power, influence; use of alliances; arms control C)
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