Exam 2.2: Textbook

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  1. Cellular Slime Molds
    -how many and location
    - cell walls 
    - also contain...
    •                                                               i.      50 species located in litter-rich soils, where they exist as free-living amoeba-like cells (myxamoebas) and feed on bacteria by phagocytosis
    •                                                             ii.      Cell walls are cellulse-rich and undergo mitosis similar to plants and animals (nuclear envelope breaks down)
    • 1.      Also have centrioles
  2. CSM cont. 

    - reproduction

    1.      The __ retain their __, resulting in __, which migrates, differentiates, and releases asexual spores
                                                                  i.      Reproduces by cell division and shows little morphological differentiation until starvationà forms a motile, sluglike mass

    uninucleate, haploid myxamoebas


    • pseudoplasmodium
  3. CSM:

                                                                  i.      Aggregate by __, migrating toward __, which is secreted by the starved myxamoebas
    1.      The __diffuses away from the cells
    a.      The secreting cells are stimulated to do what?
    • chemotaxis
    • cAMP
    • cAMP 
    • emit a new “pulse” of cAMP after five minutes (three waves)
  4. 1.      Binding of cAMP signal to receptors triggers what, enabling what? This leads to what?
    2.      The anterior cells then either become the __ and the posterior cells become __
    a.      csA gene facilitates __
    massive rearrangement of actin filaments, enabling the myxamoeba to crawl toward cAMP

    aggregation in the center leads to formation of a psudoplasmodium

    stalk (coated with cellulose; die by apoptosis)

    dormant spores and get dispersed

  5. CSM Reproduction

                                                                  i.      Reproduction involving __ is common
                                                                ii.      Sexual reproduction is also frequent and results in the formation of __
    1.      Formed by aggregations (round) of __that are smaller than those involved in the formation of slugs
    2.      During formation of a macrocysts, __, forming a __, the __, which becomes __
    • asexual spores
    • walled zygotes called macrocysts
    • myxamoebas 
    • two haploid myxamoebas first fuse
    • single large myxamoeba
    • zygote
    • phagocytic
  6. a.      The zygote continues to d what. Then, a __ is laid down and a __ is formed
                                                                                                                                          i.      Within the macrocyst, the zygote—the only diploid cell of the cycle—undergoes meiosis and several mitotic divisions before germination and the release of numerous, haploid myxamoebas
    • feed until all of surrounding myxamoebas have been engulfed
    • thick cell wall
    • mature macrocyst
  7. Fungi                                                              

    __and more closely related to __than __
                                                                ii.      Principal __of the biosphere; __breaks down and releases __into the atmosphere and __compounds to the soil, where they can be recycled
                                                              iii.      They attack __, regardless of whether they are rotting or fence posts, paper, petroleum, etc. and can produce __
    Can grow in a range of temperatures
    • Heterotrophic 
    • animals 
    • plants
    • decomposers 
    • decomposition 
    • CO2 
    • nitrogenous 
    • any trees
    • mycotoxins
  8.                                                               i.      Some attack living organisms tooà __ diseases
    1.      Attacks humans with a __
    a.      Example: __ and species of __, which cause thrush
                                                                ii.      Useful for __(yeasts) and flavors of __(yeast) and other foods; __
                                                              iii.      Produce __, including penicillin
                                                              iv.      __: cyclosporine—suppresses immune reactions during organ transplants
    Important laboratory organisms for genetic research
    • plant diseases and human diseases
    • compromised immune system
    • Pneumocystis carinii
    • Candida
    • vintners 
    • wine 
    • soy paste
    • antibiotics
    • Medicine
  9.                                                               i.      Symbiotic relationships
    1.      __have beneficial associations between roots and fungi
    2.      __are symbiotic between algae and cyanobacteria
    3.      __live inside the leaves and stems of healthy plants and produce toxinc secondary metabolites to protect their hosts
    • Mycorrhizas 
    • Lichens 
    • Endophytes
  10. Structure of Fungi

    1.      Primarily __ and __(filaments called __; mass of hyphae= __
    a.      Growth of hyphae occurs __
    b.      The hyphae of most fungi are divided by __, called __; and, the hyphae are therefore called __
    • terrestrial and filamentous 
    • hyphae
    • mycelium
    • at the tips and grow rapidly
    • crosswalls
    • septa
    • septate
  11. Structure cont.                                                                                                                                   
    In some, only __are in the reproductive structures
                                                                                                                                        ii.      The __are perforated by a __ so that the what?
    1.      In Ascomycota, the pores are usually __
    • septa 
    • septa 
    • central pore
    • protoplasts of adjacent cells are continuous from cell to cell
    • unobstructed and large enough to allow nuclei to squeeze through
  12. a.      Hyphae lacking septa are called __, or __
    2.      Not all are __; some __and reproduce by __ and __
    a.      Most yeasts are ascomycetes
    3.      Some fungi are __; they exhibit both unicellular and filamentous growth forms shifting from one form to the other under __
    a.      Most of life spent in __form
    • aseptate
    • coenocytic (multinucleate)
    • filamentous
    • unicellular 
    • fission and budding
    • dimorphic
    • changing environmental conditions
    • filamentous
  13. 1.      All fungi have cell walls made of __(more resistant than cellulose)
    2.      __of fungi is very high, so they are in great contact with environment
    a.      Only separated by __ and __
    3.      All are __ since they can’t engulf
    a.      Secretes __onto a food source and absorbs the smaller molecuels
                                                                                                                                          i.      Absorb food at or near where?
    • chitin 
    • Surface to volume ratio 
    • cell wall and plasma membrane
    • heterotrophic absorbers
    • exoenzymes 
    • the growing tips of the hyphae
  14. a.      Function as __(3)__
                                                                                                                                          i.      Some, like yeast, obtain their energy by __
    b.      Stores __ and __ (which serve an important storage function)
    c.       Specialized hyphae called __ do what?

    a.      Parasitic fungi have similar specialized hyphae, called __, that __
    • saportrophs or parasites or mutualistic symbionts
    • fermentation
    • glycogen and lipids
    • rhizoids 
    • anchor some fungi to the substrate
    • haustoria
    • absorb nourishment directly from the cells of other organisms
  15. 1.      Unique Variations of Mitosis and Meiosis
    a.      One of the most characteristic features of the Fungi involves __
    b.      Different meiosis and mitosis
                                                                                                                                          i. Explain the nuclear envelope in some fungi and others. 
    • nuclear division
    • i                                                                                                                          i.      In most fungi, the nuclear envelope does not dintegrate and reform but is constricted near the midpoint between the two daughter nuclei
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      In others, it breaks down near the mid-region
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      In most fungi, the spindle forms within the nuclear envelope but in some Basidiomycota it appears to form within the cytoplasm and move into the nucleus
  16.                                                                                                                                       i.      Except for the __, all fungi lack __, but they form unique structures called __, which appear at the spindle poles
    Like centrioles, __ function as __during mitosis and meiosis
    • chitrids
    • centrioles
    • spindle pole bodies
    • spindle pole bodies
    • MTOCs
  17. 1.      Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
    a.      Reproduce through forming __either __ or __
    b.      Except in the __, __ are the characteristic means of __in fungi
                                                                                                                                          i.      some are __
                                                                                                                                        ii.      others are __                                                                                                                                  iii.      spores of some do what?
                                                                                                                                      iv.      some do what?
    • spores 
    • sexually or asexually
    • chytrids
    • nonmotile spores
    • reproduction 
    • dry and small and can remain suspended in the air for a while, helping distribution
    • slimy and stick to insects and arthropods
    • shoot into the air
    • never produce spores
  18. a.      sexual reproduction has three phases with __
                                                                                                                                          i.      plasmogamy
                                                                                                                                        ii.      karyogamy: conditions of it?

    1.      if it doesn’t take place for months or years, the pairs of nuclei do what, producing a __--> fusion of nuclei to form a diploid nucleusà
    meiosis reestablishes __condition
    • plasmogamy and karyogamy being phases of syngamy (fertilization)
    • can follow plasmogamy immediately or take some time, forming a dikaryon (two nuclei)
    • divide in tandem
    • dikaryotic myceliumà
    • haploid
  19. a.      the diploid phase is only the __; meiosis is __(meiosis occurs immediately after zygote forms)
                                                                                                                                          i.      gamete producing structure: __that form gametes or contain the __ that __
    • zygote nucleus
    • zygotic 
    • gametangia 
    • nuclei that function as gametes
  20. a.      Asexual reproduction
                                                                                                                                          i.      Means of spores which are produced in sporangia or from hyphal cells called __in chains and are called __
                                                                                                                                        ii.      Some fungi also reproduce __ by __ of their hyphae
                                                                                                                                      iii.      __
    • conidiogenous 
    • conidia
    • asexually by fragmentation
    • budding
  21. 1.      Fungi are said to be a sister group of __, which are multinucleate amoebas
    a.      __are the earliest fungal lineage and the __condition is a primitive character retained from __after they evolved from flagellated protists
    • Nucleariids
    • Chytrids 
    • flagellated 
    • chyrids
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Exam 2.2: Textbook
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