1. Phylum Cnidaria
    • Corals, jellyfish, and hydras (10'000 species)
    • Ecto- and endoderm, and mesoglea
    • Polyp and Medusa body form
  2. Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Flatworms (20'000 species)
    • All three layers of tissue, no coelomate
  3. Phylum Mollusca
    • Snails, clams, squids, and octopi (93'000 species)
    • Muscular foot, visceral mass, and a mantle
  4. Phylum Ectoprocta
    • Bryozoans (5'000 species)
    • Bodies encased in a hard exoskeleton
  5. Phylum Annelida
    • Segmented worms, leeches (16'500 species)
    • Rings on the outside of their bodies
  6. Phylum Arthropoda
    • Bumblebee, beetle, centipede, spider, and crustaceans (1'000'000 species)
    • Paired appendages, segmentation, exoskeleton
  7. Phylum Nematoda
    • Roundworms (25'000 species)
    • Common human parasites, live in aquatics
  8. Phylum Echinodermata
    • Sea star, sand dollars, and sea urchins (7'000 species)
    • Water-vascular system and tube feet
  9. Phylum Chordata
    • Tunicates, lancelets, and vertebrates (52'000 species)
    • Notochord, dorsal-hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, and muscular tail
  10. Subphylum Vertebrates
    • Petromyzontigas (lampreys)
    • Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)
    • Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish)
    • Amphibia (amphibians)
    • Reptilia (reptiles and birds)
    • Mammalia (mammals)
  11. Anterior
    The front end of the specimen
  12. Posterior
    The hind end of the specimen
  13. Dorsal
    The upper side of the specimen
  14. Ventral
    The lower side of the specimen
  15. Proximal
    Located closest to a certain point of reference (i.e. the elbow is more proximal that the wrist in respect to the arm)
  16. Distal
    Located farthest from some point of reference (i.e. the wrist is distal to the elbow in respect to the arm)
  17. Tetrapod morphology
    Four limbs and enlarged head
Card Set
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