Inorganic Hydrochemistry

  1. Limestone
    • Calcite
    • CaCO3
  2. Anhydrite
    • Gypsum (CaSO4*H2O)
    • CaSO4

  3. Halite
  4. Sandstone
    • It depends on the rock formation
    • Could be CaCO3, MgFe, SiO2
  5. Sulfate
  6. Ammonia
    • NH3-
  7. Nitrate
  8. Hydrocarbon (Bicarbonate)
  9. Van't Hoff 10K Rule
    Reaction Rate doubles with every 10 degrees K increase in temperture
  10. Le Chatelier's Principle
    • If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in:
    • 1. Concentration
    • 2. Temperature
    • 3. Volume
    • 4. Total Pressure
    • Then the system will shift in order to counteract the change.
  11. Exothermic
    • deltar H =neg value
    • Releases Heat
  12. Endothermic
    • deltar H=positive value
    • Absorbs Heat
  13. Temperature Independant
    • deltar H= 0
    • Change in temperature has no effect on the system
  14. Equilibrium Constants (k)
    • Temperature Dependent
    • Reaction Specific
  15. How do strong electrolytes dissociate in water?
  16. How do weak electrolytes dissociate in water?
  17. What is electrical conductivity?
    Sum parameter for ions in aqueous solutions.
  18. Electrical conductivity depends on...
    • Concentration (Activity)
    • Temperature
    • Ion Mobility
    • Type of Electrolyte
  19. What is the dissociation process?
    • 1. Breaking of lattice
    • 2. Hydration of ions to keep ions apart (shield charges)
  20. Does each ion have the same number of water molecules in its hydrate shell?
    No ions are charged differently depending on density and size
  21. What is an ideal solution?
    Ions are so well shielded by a hydrate shell that there is no electrostatic forces between them.
  22. What is a non-ideal solution?
    Electrostatic forces between ions exist
  23. What does I>0.01 M mean?
    • Concentration of free ions does not equal the total concentration
    • Ions interact electrostatically (non-ideal solution)
  24. What are activity coefficients used for?
    Adjusting solutions with I>0.01M (non ideal solutions) molar concentrations to effective concentrations (activity).
  25. What is Ionic strength?
    The measure of ions in a charged solution
  26. Salts are more soluble in...
    hot water
  27. Alkali Metal Salts are...
    very soluble in water
  28. What are some Alkali Metal Salts???
    • NaCl
    • KOH
    • Li3PO4
    • Na2SO4
  29. Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) are...
    very soluble in water.
  30. Most salts containing Cl-, Br-, I- are....
    very soluble in water
  31. Salts containing Ag+ and Pb2+ are
    not soluble in water
  32. Are FeCl2, AlBr3, MgI2 soluble salts?
  33. Are AgCl, PbBr2 soluble salts?
  34. Weak electrolytes are...
    insoluble in water
  35. Strong electrolytes are...
    soluble in water
  36. What is the Saturation Index (SI) of a mineral in equilibrium in an aqueous solution?
  37. What is the Saturation Index (SI) of a mineral in an under-saturated aqueous solution?
  38. What is the Saturation Index (SI) of a mineral in a super-saturated aqueous solution?
  39. Is it possible to compare Ksp values?
    No, Ksp values must be converted to Solubility (S) and then compared.
  40. Gases are more soluble in...
    cold water
  41. What is the effect of adding NaF to a CaF2 solution?
    • The common ion effect
    • Increase in [F-] makes the ion product greater than the solubility product (Ksp)
    • Until equilibrium is reestablished CaF2 will precipitate out of the solution
    • Over all result of adding a common ion is a decrease in the solubility of the salt in the solution
  42. What is the Common Ion Effect?
    • Le Chatelier Principal
    • The increase in common ion makes the ion product larger than the solubility product (Ksp)
    • Until equilibrium is reestablished the salt in the solution will precipitate out
    • Overall result of adding a foreign ion is the decrease in solubility of the salt in the solution
  43. What is the effect of adding NaCl to a CaSO4 solution?
    • Foreign Ion Effect
    • The concentration of Ca2+ and SO4- increases
    • The activity coefficient (f) of Ca2+ and SO4- decreases
    • This occurs until equilibrium and the solubility product (Ksp) is reestablished again.
  44. What is the foreign ion effect?
    • The addition of a foreign ion causes the ¬†system to shift out of equilibrium
    • Ionic strength (I) increases¬†
    • Concentration (C) of the products in solution to increase and the activity coefficient (f) decreases
    • This process occurs until equilibrium is reestablished
  45. Enthalpy (delta H) depends on...
  46. What are some ions who's concentration is controlled by other ions?
    • F
    • HCO3
    • Ca
    • Mg
    • PO4
    • SO4
  47. For Endothermic Processes (+ delta H) solubility....
    increases with increasing temperature
  48. For Exothermic Processes (-delta H) solubility....
    decreases with increasing temperature.
  49. For Endothermic reactions the Lattice Enthalpy is....
    > Hydration Enthalpy
  50. For Exothermic reactions the Lattice Enthalpy is....
    <Hydration Enthalpy
  51. What is lattice enthalpy?
    Strength of forces between ions in an ionic solid
  52. What is Hydration Energy?
    • Energy released upon attachment of water molecules to ions.
    • Special case of dissolution energy
  53. What is an Example of Hydration Energy?
    • Dissolving a salt in water
    • Outermost ions (those at the edge of the lattice) move away from the lattice and become covered with the neighboring water molecule
  54. If Hydration Energy >= Lattice Energy then
    the salt soluble in water
  55. For Ionic Strength (I) do not multiply by....
    charge and consider all of the molecules present in the water sample
  56. When claculating Ionic Balance mulitply mol/L of substance by....
    • charge
    • only consider major and minor ions in the water sample
Card Set
Inorganic Hydrochemistry
Inorganic Hydrochemistry