1. New Negro Movement

    ** know the time frame**
    Term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying an person (that isn't afraid to speak their mind) supporting the idea of dignity and refusing to sit quietly to the practice of the Jim Crow racial segregation

    EX: Hughes as a writer during this era wrote about black culture and their experiences. Specifically segregated black communities meant to empower blacks.
  2. Niagra Movement
    A black civil rights organization led by W.E.B Du Bois.

    EX: Du Bois and Washington represent opposite views of this movement. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn's story was based off of this violent era.
  3. Pan-Africanism
    Movement that suggested that blacks despite slavery shared the core of African values.

    Ex: Hughes' wrote a poem about deep cultural history of black which Du Bois described as the undiscovered strength of African American culture.
  4. Narrative point-of-view
    point of view of narrating a story either through first person using 'I', second person like 'you' or third person like 'he'.

    Ex: the Jumping Frog's narrators point of view was in first-person. Narrator seems to be a well educated man from the East who presents a story of Jim Smiley
  5. Realism

    ***Time Frame***
    Depictions of everyday life, used to put a critical spotlight on the values and conventions that govern our lives.

    • Ex: Chesnutt: realist stories examined race relations in both the North and the South
    • Cohan: works offer a strong example of socially conscious fiction about immigrants that were popular
    • Editha: showed the dangers of romanticism.
  6. Naturalism

    ***Time Frame***
    (1880's-1940's: late 1800's-mid 1900s) Style/theory of representation based on accurate depiction of detail

    Ex: Sister Carrie- the author attached a great importance to objectivity and realist which placed stress on heredity, desire, chance, economy, and the environment. Themes that were touched: the american dream, competition, immortality, sex, wealth, and poverty.
  7. Social Darwinism
    Belief that society follows the rules of Darwanian Evolution

    Ex: to build a fire, the main character doesn't act by reason but by instinct.
  8. Local Color

    ****Time Frame****
    • (right after the Civil War- around 1865)
    • Texts that follow the basic patterns of realism. Used to describe "ordinary people" but focus the dialogue on specific characteristics about them.

    Ex: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn exemplifies the characteristics of a local color writing in several different ways. Twain uses local color to help the reader gain a just perspective on the people, places, and events that took place in the story 
  9. The Grasshopper Metaphor
    In the 2nd paragraph of Criticism & Fiction Howell implies that artists need to study and describe real life in order to reflect the reality and to get at the "truth." Also writers should be like scientists, by finding an objective and accurate depictions of natural phenomenon.
  10. Yellow Journalism
    Journalism that is based on exaggeration. Derived from "The Yellow Kid" (popular comic strip from the1890's)

    Ex: Landon & Crane were reporters during the war known for exaggerating their stories.
  11. Picaresque
    An episodic style fiction with adventures with a rough and dishonest yet likable hero.

    Ex: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. It is described as Picaresque because it's a novel on the road Mississippi river) and in this instance Huck would be the hero.
  12. Foil
    Character who contrasts with another character in order to highlight specific qualities in each character. Usually differs dramatically or extremely similar

    Ex: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck and Buck have similar names and around the same age. The contrast in this story is that Buck is rich and Huck is poor yet they're still friends. Buck learns that money and class aren't everything.
  13. Episodic
    consists of a series of loosely related incidents tied together by a common theme and/or characters

    Ex: Huckleberry Finn was an episodic novel. Story takes place from nature (Mississippi River) because of it's episodic nature it's best described as on the road.
  14. Satire
    Use of Irony, Sarcasm, ridicule, etc.

    Ex: Jumping Fog is a tale that relies on humor and exaggeration. Twain ridicules a part of the American Society (the Westerners to make them seem poorly educated)
  15. Determinism
    Belief that the environment, social class, and heredity plays a larger part in determining one's free will

    Ex: The Open Boat & To Build a Fire
  16. Tone
    The attitude of the author towards the reader in the story

    Ex: Editha- he mocks her with word choice and phrases, also sets the overall tone of her personality which is that she's selfish yet caring.
  17. Dramatic Irony
    the words and actions of the characters have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the characters. When the reader's understand more than the characters do in the story

    Ex: Editha: asking George to enlist she only thinks about how it will make him look, whereas the reader understands that he could possibly die or get hurt in the war.
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