1. Arts and Crafts Movement
    an art movement from England in the last decade of the 1800s that reacted against the Industrial Revolution by returning to handicrafts and traditional materials of production.
  2. William Morris
    the leader of the English Arts and Crafts movement; he called for a nobility of purpose, faith in natural materials and handcrafted methods of production, and individual expression by designers and craftspeople.
  3. Kelmscott Press
    printing shop set up by William Morris in England to produce high-quality printed books whose design was influenced by a medieval aesthetic.
  4. Display type
    type styles designed for headlines: they are often large, decorative, and emotionally suggestive, therefore not suitable for body text.
  5. Duotone
    two color illustration created from two halftone plates
  6. Registration
    alignment of different plates for the printing process.
  7. Victorian era
    a period of time from 1830's- 1890's characterized by strong moral and religious beliefs (the reign of Queen Victoria of England).
  8. Edweard Muybridge
    photographer who experiments with captured motion images led to the development of motion pictures.
  9. Daguerreotype
    an image made using a light-sensitive silver plated sheet.
  10. Louis Jacques Daguerre
    Frenchman who perfected a photographic imaging process in 1839.
  11. Linotype machine
    developed by Ottoman Mergenthaler in 1886: keys dropped “female" matrices into line to form words; melted lead is then poured in to make a solid line of type.
  12. San serif type
    a typeface without a serif. Essentially Egyptian type with the serif removed; first developed by William Caslon IV
  13. Condensed type
    a font where the shape of the letter is made narrow.
  14. Expanded type
    font where the shape of the letter is stretched wide.
  15. Reverse type
    font where the background of the letterforms is the printing area: leaves the appearance of white-on- black letters.
  16. Perspective type
    a three-dimensional font(often using a back shadow to create a sense of depth.
  17. Bracketing
    the curve transition from the main strokes of a letterforms to its serifs.
  18. Egyptian type
    name given to “slab serif" fonts (Robert Thorne 1821)
  19. Industrial Revolution
    the mid 1700s to the mid 1800's; a time when interchangeable parts led to a boom and manufacturing.
  20. William Blake
    visionary English poet and artist (1757-1827) who self -published his books of poetry.
  21. x-height
    refers to the distance between the baseline and the mean line in a typeface (the height of the main shapes of the lower case letters).
  22. Pie chart
    is a circular chart divided into sections, showing proportions with in a whole.
  23. Bar chart
    is a chart with rectangular bars that show comparative growth.
  24. Line graph
    a chart that shows growth across time via a line moving across a grid.
  25. Information graphics
    diagrams which visually represent complex statistical data (introduced by Scottish author and scientist Williams Playfair
  26. Letterheads
    a customized type arrangement that announces the author of a letter.
  27. Outline type
    a font that only prints the outer contour of a letter and leaves the center of the letterforms open
  28. Type family
    a group of type font variations with different heights and tend to be visually compatible and easily mixed
  29. Point size
    small unit of measuring the height of a type font. 6 points equal one “line" 12 lines = “pounce" out roughly 1 inch currently 72 points =1 inch
  30. Foundry
    a metalsmithing shop where metal shapes are cast (formed and reproduced)
  31. Typefounder
    a craftsman who specializes in casting metal type
  32. Romain du Roi
    a typeface commissioned by Louis the XIV for the French government. Based on a grid of 2,304 squares, each letter had increased contrast between thick and thin strokes, sharp horizontal serifs, and an even balance to each letter form.
  33. Headpieces and Tailpieces
    decorative flourishes (composed of fleuron elements) beginning or ending a text piece to create visual bracketing.
  34. Swashes
    decorative extended ascender or descender; a calligraphic flourish
  35. Italic
    a slanted typeface based on Italian script writing style.
  36. Headings
    large type signifying a new chapter or separate verse.
  37. Fleurons
    cast metal pieces with decorative floral designs.
  38. Trademark
    A symbol to identify a person's trade as a specialty.
  39. Alignment
    The way in which parts of a letterform are synchronized with others letters in a typeface.
  40. Letterspacing
    space between letterforms.
  41. The Renaissance
    means the “rebirth". Originally referring to the period that began in the 14th and 15th century in Italy (Florence was the epicenter for art, Venice for graphic design).
  42. Propaganda
    communication used to influence and sway the position or beliefs of someone; propaganda is spread to either help or harm a person or a cause.
  43. The Reformation
    the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century, led to the creation of the Protestant church.
  44. Martin Luther
    a political religious reformer who broke the Catholic Church; he nailed his 95 theses to the door of the cathedral to protest church corruption.
  45. Caption
    text under an illustration or picture, to explain or draw attention to.
  46. Ephemera (ephemeral)
    transitory written and printed matter not intended to be retained or preserved. The word derives from the Greek, meaning things lasting no more than a day. Some collectible ephemera are advertising trade cards, airsickness bags, bookmarks, catalogs, greeting cards, letters, pamphlets, postcards, tickets.
  47. Incunabula
    a Latin word meaning "cradle" or baby linen. This name is given to books that were printed from the Gutenberg's invention of typography until the end of the fifteenth century.
  48. Engraving
    printing made from an incised (cut)plate
  49. Margin
    space between paragraphs on a page.
  50. Press
    based on the design of a wine press; a large screw lowers a plate and ink is pressed from the type onto the paper surface with enough force to make an impression.
  51. Johann Gutenberg
    inventor of the first printing press. he was a goldsmith, developing the metalworking and engraving skills for making type.
  52. Motif
    recurring subject or theme, idea or design element.
  53. Watermark
    a translucent emblem produced by pressure from a raise design on the papermaking mold and visible when the sheet of paper is held to light.
  54. Typography
    is a term for printing with independent movable and reusable bits of metal or wood type (each piece having a raised letter form on the face).
  55. Arabesque
    a fluid, spiraling, undulating or serpentine line or linear motif inspired by the designs and writings of the Muslim world.
  56. Ornamentation
    visual embellishment; decorations that often appear in the margins of a text.
  57. Celtic
    a people residing on the islands of Northwest Europe (now Ireland) during the Roman-era. Celtic design is abstract and extremely complex, with geometric linear patterns that weave, twist and fill a space with dark visual textures.
  58. Descender
    letter strokes that drop below the baseline.
  59. Ascender
    letter strokes that rise above the top guideline.
  60. Medieval
    the 1000 year period between the decline of Rome and the early Renaissance also known as the Middle Ages or the Dark ages.
  61. Illuminated manuscript
    a hand-written, hand-painted book decorated with gold leaf.
  62. Movable type
    block letterforms that can be arranged and rearranged for planning
  63. Colophon
    a publisher's emblem at the opening page of a book, listing the name of the printer, publisher,date, etc.
  64. Codex
    book form developed by the Greeks around the time of Jesus of Nazareth.
  65. Vellum
    the finest parchment, made of the smooth skin of newborn calves.
  66. Parchment
    writing surface made from skins of domestic animals; calves, sheep, ect.
  67. Stylus
    writing tool used to mark into a surface.
  68. Capitals
    large, open square style of letter written for clarity and legibility (latin: Capitalis Quadrata).
  69. Legibility
    the clearness, clarity (readability) of written words.
  70. Baseline
    the line which letters in a common word sit upon.
  71. Serif
    small lines extended from end of major strokes of a letterform.
  72. Calligraphy
    ink writing using a wide flat pen.Comes from the Greek meaning "beauty writing".
  73. Alphabet
    is a group of symbols that represent the elementary sounds of a spoken language. The word is derived from the Greek two letters Alpha and Beta.
  74. Verso
    the bottom vertical fibers of the papyrus; the "back" of the page .
  75. Recto
    the upper horizontal fibers of a papyrus; the "front" of the page.
  76. Heiroglyphics
    a picture writing system developed by the Ancient Egyptians. Greek "hiero" = sacred, "glyph" = carving.
  77. Rebus writing
    pictures representing words/syllables with the same or similar sound as the object represented.
  78. Cuneiform
    the earliest form of written language. Wedge-shaped writing developed by the Sumerians of the Ancient Near East (Mesopotomia, currently Iraq) around 3000 BCE
  79. Utilitarian
    to be used for a function or purpose; for utility, as opposed to decorative.
Card Set
Midterm study guide