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  1. Social Psychology
    the scientific study of how our social environment affects our AFFECT, BEHAVIOR, and COGNITION
  2. Three major topics in Social Psychology:
    social cognition

    social influence

    social relations
  3. Social Cognition
    how others influence our self-concept; what we think of others and objects in our environment
  4. Social Influence
    how others impact our behavior
  5. Social Relations
    interactions we have with others
  6. What two aspects of human experience does social psychology focus on to explain human behavior?
    situational factors and cognitive reactions to them
  7. What are two types of experimental settings? Which is more common in Social Psychology
    correlational and experimental; correlational studies more common in Soc. Psych.
  8. Problems with Correlational Research
    Reverse Causality Problem

    Third Variable Problem
  9. Generalizability
    the ability to apply findings of a study to real world settings
  10. Mundane Realism
    the extend to which the research setting resembles the real world setting of interest
  11. Experimental Realism
    the degree to which the experimental setting and procedures are engaging to the participant
  12. Three Major Components of Experiments
    • 1. MANIPULATE the independent variable
    • 2. OBSERVE the behavior on the dependent variable
    • 3. RANDOMLY ASSIGN people to experimental and control groups
  13. What are the four major aspects of the cognitive self?
    • self-concept
    • self-efficacy
    • self-knowledge
    • social-self
  14. Self Concept
    total of an individual's beliefs about their own personal attributes
  15. Self Schema
    beliefs about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information; make up self concept
  16. Self-Reference Effect
    when information is relevant to our self-concept we process and remember it much more quickly
  17. Spotlight Effect
    belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are
  18. Gilovich T-shirt Study (2000)
    procedure: college students put on embarrassing t-shirts before entering a room with other students

    results: 50% of paricipants thought their shirts would be noticed; only 23% did
  19. Illusion of Transparency
    illusion that our cancelled emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
  20. Individualistic Society
    emphasizes personal attributes and traits (ex. I am kind and athletic)
  21. Collective Society
    deemphasize personal attributes and emphasizes social affiliations (ex. I am Catholic and a father)
  22. Self Knowledge
    explaining and prediction our behavior and emotions
  23. Limits to Self-Knowledge
    • explaining our behavior
    • prediction our behavior - others are often better
    • explaining our emotions
    • predicting our emotions
  24. Durability Bias
    overestimating how long positive or negative emotions will last until the future
  25. Immune Neglect
    failure to recognize that we have a defense mechanism that protects us from negative events
  26. Psychological Immune System
    cognitive mechanism, often acting unconsciously, that protects us from really bad events; reframes bad events in a more positive light
  27. Self-Efficacy
    a sense that one is competent and effective with regard to a particular behavior or set of behaviors
  28. Self-Presentation
    act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression, both to others and the self
  29. Self-Monitoring
    being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create desired presentation
  30. High Self Monitors
    "social chameleons"; self they present is often NOT their real self
  31. Low Self Monitors
    "own person"; self portrayal is the REAL self
  32. Self-Control
    the process by which we seek to control or alter our feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
  33. Learned Helplessness
    when people continually experience bad events, they learn that their behavior can't control their outcomes so they stop trying
  34. Locus of Control
    extent to which people perceive life events as internally or externally controlled
  35. Internal Locus of Control
    people get what they deserve; what happens to me is my doing; the average person can influence decisions
  36. External Locus of Control
    no one gets recognition for what they do; sometimes I feel I don't have control over what happens to me; conspiracy theories
  37. Self-Serving Bias
    tendency to perceive oneself in a positive light
  38. Hindsight Bias
    the inclination to see events that have already occurred as being more predictable than they were before they took place
  39. Self-Serving Attribution
    tendency to attribute successes to oneself and failures to external factors

    exception - we attribute failures in the past with our PAST self
  40. Better than Average Effect
    tendency to see oneself (and one's belongings) as better than other's or the average person on subjective and socially desirable dimensions
  41. In-group Bias
    see your own group as better than another
  42. Unrealistic Optimism
    tendency to see one's future as exceptionally positive, partly because of tendencies to be pessimistic about others fates
  43. False Consensus Effect
    tendency to overestimate the degree to which others agree with us
  44. False Uniqueness Effect
    when we do succeed or act morally, we tend to underestimate the extent to which others act the same way we do
  45. Self-Esteem
    an AFFECTIVE component of the self, consisting of a persons positive and negative self-evaluations
  46. Self Esteem enhancement techniques
    • self-handicapping (protecting one's self image by engaging in behaviors that create handy excuses for future failures)
    • basking in the glory of others
    • downward social comparison
  47. Internal Self-Esteem
    rooted within the self; feeling good about the self no matter what
  48. External Self-Esteem
    rooted within environmental success
  49. Person Perception
    the process by which people come to understand one another
  50. Attribution Theory
    how people explain the causes of events or behavior
  51. Internal Attributions (Attribution Theory)
    explanation in terms of dispositional or person-centered
  52. External Attributions (Attribution Theory)
    explanation in situational or environmental causes
  53. Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
    when explaining others behavior, one often attributes it to internal factors; no distinctions between successes and failure when talking about others

    moderated by time and culture
  54. Trait Negativity Bias
    negative traits are more influential than positive
  55. Primacy Effect
    first traits we observe are more influential than later traits
  56. Central Traits
    certain traits (ex. attractiveness) that exert a powerful influence on overall impressions
  57. Automatic Thinking
    unintentional, impulsive, quick, effortless, unconscious
  58. Controlled Thinking
    deliberate, systematic, slow, effortful, conscious
  59. Schema
    mental templates that intuitively guide our interpretations and perceptions of our experiences
  60. Overconfidence Bias
    people's subjective confidence in their judgement is greater than their actual accuracy
  61. Confirmation Bias
    tendency to seek our evidence and notice evidence to confirm original beliefs
  62. Misinformation Effect
    tendency to integrate "misinformation" into one's memory after witnessing an event or receiving false information
  63. Rosy Interpretation
    tend to remember event more positively because forget negative aspects
  64. Heuristics
    simple, efficient rules people use when making decisions or judgements about things
  65. Availability Heuristic
    people estimate the odds that an event will occur by how easily instances of it pop into mind (ex. shark attacks)
  66. Representative Heuristics
    tendency to assume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone belongs to the group if they resemble a typical member
  67. Illusory Correlation
    if people believe a relationship between two things, then hey see evidence of it
  68. Illusory Control
    we think we have control over random events
  69. Self-fulfilling Prophecy
    the process by which one person's expectations about a target person eventually leads that target person to behave in ways that confirm the perceiver's expectations
  70. Behavioral Confirmation
    a type of self-fulfulling prophecy whereby other's social expectations (stereotypes) lead individuals to behave in ways that confirm those expectations
Card Set
review cards for test 1; modules 1-9
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