CH4 ntd 303

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  1. compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides
  2. brains preferred source of energy?
  3. sources of carbs?
    • rice
    • bread
    • pasta
    • corn
    • dairy
    • potatoes
  4. muscles use what for energy?
    • glucose
    • glycogen
    • fat
  5. simple sugar units
  6. 3 main monosaccharides?
    • glucose
    • fructose
    • galactose
  7. glucose is?
    blood sugar
  8. fructose is?
    fruit sugar
  9. galactose is?
    found in lactose in milk
  10. major monosaccharide in the body also known as dextrose
  11. what is glucose called in the bloodstream
    blood sugar
  12. glucose is a source of ?
    fuel for cells
  13. glucose breaks down
    starches and sucrose
  14. fructose is in
  15. where can fructose be found?
    • fruit
    • honey
    • high fructose corn syrup
  16. what happens to fructose in the liver?
    it is converted into glucose
  17. the sweetest of sugars?
  18. galactose is found in?
    lactose, which is a dissacharide
  19. where is galactose coverted?
    in the liver to glucose
  20. what food is galactose found in?
    milk and milk products
  21. disaccharides are composed of?
  22. formed when 2 monosaccharides combine
  23. 3 disaccharides?
    • sucrose
    • lactose
    • maltose
  24. sucrose? what does it make?
    • glucose + fructose
    • makes sugar
  25. lactose? what does it make ?
    • galactose + glucose
    • milk products
  26. maltose? what does it make?
    • glucose + glucose
    • fermentation, alcohol production
  27. links 2 monosaccharides together and a water molecule is formed
  28. breaks disaccharides into two monosaccharides. a water molecule is split to form the two monosaccharides
  29. condensation? hydrolysis?
    • forms
    • breaks down
  30. more than 2 glucose units together
  31. 3 complex carbs that are important to nutrition?
    • glycogen
    • starch
    • fiber
  32. storage form of glucose for animals and humans
  33. manufactured and stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent muscles
  34. rapid hydrolysis/breakdown
  35. glycogen is highly branched chains of
    glucose molecules
  36. straight chain form of starch glucose
  37. branch chain of starch glucose
  38. we do not ____ glycogen
  39. easier to break down than amylase
  40. what are the richest source of starch?
  41. what supplies most of the energy people require each day?
  42. undigested starch aka roughage
    dietary fiber
  43. bonds between monosaccarides in ___ ___ cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes
    dietary fiber
  44. 2 major fibers?
    • water soluble
    • water insoluble
  45. 4 categories of water soluble fibers?
    • gums
    • mucilages
    • peclins
    • some hemicelluloses
  46. these water soluble fibers are added to food as stabilizers
    • gums
    • mucilages
  47. this water soluble fibers are found in breads and fruits; form gels in water; used as thickener in food products
  48. this water soluble fiber is found in legumes and cereal fiber, barley and oats
  49. 3 categories of water insoluble fiber
    • some hemicelluloses
    • cellulose
    • lignin
  50. this water insoluble fiber is found in cereal fiber, wheat
    some hemicellulose
  51. this water insoluble fiber occurs in fruits, vegetables and legumes
  52. this water insoluble fiber is the woody part of carrots and in the small seeds of fruits
  53. ____ ____ is fast moving and gives you diarrhea
    insoluble fiber
  54. insoluble fiber of apple? soluble fiber in apple?
    • skin
    • inside
  55. ___ ___ is very slow moving
    soluble fiber
  56. ___ forms bad cholesterol
  57. ___ ___ moves fiber out of the body
    soluble fiber
  58. soluble and insoluble fiber both ?
    • slow starch breakdown
    • delay glucose absorption in the blood
    • fermented by microorganisms in the digestive tract
  59. ___ ___ captures water like a sponge and causes swelling and increases intestinal bulk and fecal weight
    insoluble fiber
  60. ____ ___ has the ability to bind minerals
    insoluble fiber
  61. ___ ___ has capacity to form gel like solutions
    soluble fiber
  62. ____ ____ has bile binding capacity, excrete cholesterol, lowers blood cholesterol
    soluble fiber
  63. carb digestion begins in the ____ with ___ ____
    • mouth
    • salivary amylase
  64. carb digestion ____ in the stomach because stomach acid and enzymes inactivate salivary amylase
  65. ultimate goal for carb digestion?
    glucose for absorption and use
  66. most carb digestion occurs in the ?
    small intestine
  67. 3 specific dissaharide enzymes in carb digestion?
    • maltase
    • sucrase
    • lactase
  68. breaks maltose into glucose and glucose
  69. breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose
  70. breaks lactose into glucose and galactose
  71. in carb absorption ___ and ____ are transported directly into the bloodstream
    • glucose
    • galactose
  72. active transport in carb absorption?
    • glucose
    • galactose
  73. facilitated diffusion in carb absorption ?
  74. what happens in the liver during carb absorption?
    conversion of fructose and galactose
  75. end of carb digestion?
  76. ____ and ____ are metabolized in the liver, where as ____ is immediately sent to the body cells for energy
    • fructose
    • galactose
    • glucose
  77. 3 possible destinations of glucose?
    • glucose gets used for energy if needed
    • glucose gets packaged into glycogen and stored in the liver or the muscle cells
    • glucose gets converted to fat and stored in the body as fat cells
  78. lactase activity is highest?
    • immediately after birth
    • declines with age
  79. T OR F a milk allergy is different from lactose intolerance
  80. with a lactose intolerance, what are the potential nutrient deficiencies
    • riboflavin
    • vitamin D
    • calcium
  81. ___ of glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and ___ of glucose is stored as glycogen in the muscles
    • 1/3
    • 2/3
  82. short term energy supply that includes less than 1 day at rest and up to a few hours exercise
  83. ___ supplies us with long term energy
  84. glucose is a key player in
    carbohydrate metabolism
  85. when glycogen needs to be released from the liver what does it use?
  86. fuels most of body's cels
  87. preferred source for brain, nerve cells and developing red blood cells
  88. the making of glucose from body proteins
  89. lowers blood glucose
  90. raises blood glucose
  91. T OR F the body is only able to store so much glycogen, but the body can store an unlimited number of fats
  92. blood becomes acidic
  93. glucose makes fat when it is?
  94. brings glucose out from storage
    glucagon and epinephrine
  95. intestines have a steady supply of what in the blood stream?
  96. liver has a steady supply of what in the blood stream?
  97. responsible for secreating glucagon
  98. main goal in glucose homeostasis?
    to move glucose from the blood into the cells
  99. type 1 diabetes?
    the pancreas fails to produce insulin
  100. type 2 diabetes?
    the cells fail to respond to insulin
  101. insulin is either inadequate of ineffective
  102. speed of glucose absorption, level of blood glucose and return to normal glucose levels
    glycemic response
  103. a low glycemic response is?
  104. bacteria ferment sugars producing acid
    dental caries
  105. health effects of sugars?
    • nutrient deficiencies
    • dental caries
    • tooth decay
  106. WHO and FAO recommend what percentage of calories to come from sugar?
  107. the dietary guidelines say to choose and prepare foods with little?
    added sugar
  108. sugar alcohols?
    provide kcals
  109. an herbal product GRAS
    stevia (artificial sweetener)
  110. health effects of starch and fibers on heart disease?
    improves risk factors through whole grains and soluble fibers
  111. health effects of starch and fibers on diabetes?
    high fiber foods recommended
  112. what is recommended for GI health/
    • high fiber foods
    • ample fluids
  113. what is good source of food for weight management?
    high fiber foods and whole grains make you feel full
  114. problems from excessive fiber?
    • insufficient nutrients
    • abdominal discomfort
    • GI obstruction
    • nutrient absorption
  115. less than ___ of fiber per day can compromise mineral balance
  116. DRI for fiber?
    25-30 grams per day
  117. AMDR for carbs is?
    45%-65% of total calories per day
  118. 1 oz of ___ provides about 15g of carbs
  119. "three are key" message?
    choose 1 whole grain at each meal
  120. meat and meat alternatives have?
    no carbs
  121. protein foods that have carbs?
    • legumes
    • nuts
    • seeds
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CH4 ntd 303
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