HDEV 402 Weeks 7-8 Quiz

  1. Language
    Verbal, physical, biologically innate, and a basic form of communication
  2. We use language to:
    • Express inner thoughts and emotions
    • Make sense of complex and abstract thought
    • Learn to communicate with others
    • Fulfill our wants and needs
    • Establish rules and maintain our culture
  3. Main theorist associated with interactionist theory
    Lev Vygotsky
  4. Collaborative learning
    The idea that conversations with older people can help children both cognitively and linguistically
  5. Language development is both...
    biological and social
  6. Language learning is influenced by...
    the desire of children to communicate with others
  7. Language and Poverty in America
    • Children in poverty often have fewer words spoken to hem, with shorter utterances, and greater numbers of discouragements
    • May not have had opportunity to learn school language of negotiation, self advocacy, and prediction
    • May not have had the language underpinnings of math and science
  8. Number of words heard
    Age 5: 50,000,000 words spoken
  9. Children from low language resource backgrounds hear ______% fewer encouragements than high language resource background children do
  10. Prior to kindergarten, a child from low readingbackground  averages _____ home hours
  11. Important concepts that help children relate idea and concepts
    • Location
    • Quality
    • Color
    • Shape
    • Quantity/Size
    • Time
  12. Repeat-Model-Expand
    The technique refers to a teacher inserting his or her own language to make a child's utterance more complex
  13. Skills used by successful kindergarteners
    • Concepts/Vocabulary
    • Listening Skills
    • Phonology Awareness
    • Oral Language
  14. Think Aloud
    • Share own personal thoughts and feelings about what is happening in the classroom
    • Parent may stop and give personal opinion about what is happening while reading or telling a story
    • Children also use teacher's model to organize their problem solving, comprehension, contextual relationships, social language, and oral narratives
  15. Talk Alongs
    • Often inserting the target enrichment vocabulary and concepts into their own language
    • Teacher can use vocabulary words (walk, hike, climb, tree, branch,twig, rocks, and weather) in a talk along while modeling the play activity
  16. 7 Pillars of Literacy
    • Building associations among concepts and content
    • Use open-ended questions in conversation
    • Build new hands-on vocabulary and concepts
    • Engage prior knowledge
    • Use talk-alongs and think-alouds
    • Repeat/Model/Expand
    • Rhyme, Rhythm, Repetition
  17. Oral Language and Emergent Literacy
    • Multi-generational poverty families
    • Language between children
    • Language between children and adults
    • Value of language in different socioeconomic households or cultures
    • Special skills gained from language enrich environment
  18. Intelligence
    • Ability to accomplish new tasks successfully
    • Not a measure of what has been learned
    • Dependent on prior learning
  19. Intelligence involves...
    • Modification and adjustment of behaviors
    • Ability to benefit from experiences
  20. Intelligence is characterized by...
    Adaptive - can respond flexibility to a variety of situations

    • Involves:
    • Learning ability
    • Prior Knowledge
    • Complex interaction of various mental processes

    It's culture-specific
  21. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
    General factor may exist, however, children an adults also have 8 different abilities

    • Linguistic
    • Logical-Mathematical
    • Spatial
    • Musical
    • Interpersonal
    • Intrapersonal
    • Naturalist
    • Bodily-Kinesthetic
  22. Effects of Heredity and Environment on Intelligence
    Both heredity and environment affect intelligence

    Evidence for heredity is supported by twin and adopted children studies

    • IQ affected by environmental factors such as
    • Nutrition
    • Home environment
    • Formal schooling
  23. How Nature and Nurture Interact in Their Influence on Intelligence
    • Heredity establishes a range rather than a precise figure
    • Genetic expression is influenced by environmental conditions
    • Especially as they get older, children choose their environments and experiences
  24. Evidence for Heredity Influences on Intelligence
    • Information processing speed = neurological efficiency and maturation
    • Twin Studies: Identical twins have very similar IQ score
    • Adoption Studies: Children's IQ scores correlate more with scores of biological parents that with scores of adoptive parents
  25. Evidence for Environmental Influences on Intelligence
    • Twin and Adoption Studies
    • Effects of Home Environment
    • Effects of Early Nutrition
    • Effects of Early Intervention
    • Effects of Formal Schooling
    • The Flynn Effect
  26. The Flynn Effect
    • Improved way of life --> More intelligent
    • Reached era where we're not anymore intelligent that the previous
    • Genetic traits or technology?
  27. Giftedness
    • IQ at least 130
    • Advanced Placement classes include higher level material in specific subjects
  28. Issues with Giftedness
    • Gifted adolescents become bored and alienated from school or socially isolated
    • Challenges in defining giftedness have implications for gifted education
  29. Addressing the unique needs of gifted children and adolescents:
    • Individualize instruction in accordance with students' specific talents
    • Form study groups of gifted students who have similar abilities and interests
    • Teach complex cognitive skills within the context of specific school topics rather than separately from the standard school curriculum
    • Provide opportunities for independent study
    • Encourage students to set high goals for themselves, but without expecting perfection
    • Seek outside resources
  30. Mental Retardation
    • Disability marked by significantly below-average general intelligence and deficits in adaptive behavior
    • Child must exhibit both before diagnosed
    • Adaptive Behavior: Behavior related to daily living skills and appropriate conduct in social situations
  31. Maximizing the development of children and adolescents with mental retardation
    • Encourage infants to use strengths they have, and offer opportunities and support for acquiring new knowledge and skills
    • Introduce new material at slower pace, and provide many opportunities for practice
    • Explain tasks concretely and in specific language
    • Give explicit guidance about how to study
    • Give feedback about specific behaviors rather than about general areas of performance
    • Encourage independence
  32. Motivation
    • Defined as a state that energizes, directs, and sustains  behavior
    • It's what gets people to do something and keeps them doing it
    • All children and adolescents are motivated in one form or another
  33. Extrinsic Motivation
    • External factors unrelated to the task and outside of the individual
    • Examples include praise, rewards, grades, etc.
  34. Intrinsic Motivation
    • Internal desire to perform a particular task
    • Ex: Working on extra homework problems to improve their skills
  35. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards and Punishment
    Emphasis on environmental influenced to behavior

    • Reinforcement
    • Primary - Satisfy a built-in need
    • Secondary - Created over time by pairing with other reinforcers

    • Delayed Gratification
    • Children become better at this as they grow older
  36. Social Learning
    Extension of learning theory that includes modeling where people observe behavior and pattern their own after it

    • Bandura - Model is admired or observer is inexperienced
    • Self-efficacy motivates people to change themselves and their contexts
  37. Vicarious Punishment
    Behavior decreases as a result of seeing someone else be punished for the behavior
  38. Vicarious Reinforcement
    Behavior increases as a result of seeing someone else be rewarded for someone's behavior
  39. Key Principles of Intrinsic Motivation
    • Children seem to be genetically predisposed to exploring their environment
    • Children require consistency in understanding their world
    • Children gravitate towards activities at which they think they will be successful
    • Children prefer certain levels of autonomy

    High self-efficacy = higher chance of activity being undertaken
  40. Mastery goal
    Desire to acquire new knowledge or skills
  41. Performance goal
    Desire to achieve favorable status with other
  42. Social goal
    Desire to establish and maintain good relationships with others
  43. Development of Attributions: 3 Characteristic Groups
    • Internal/External
    • Stable/Unstable
    • Controllable/Uncontrolable
  44. Development of Attributions
    • Children develop an ability to discriminate among possible causal factors
    • Children begin to attribute their successes and failures to stable uncontrollable characteristics vs. effort
    • Children become predictable in their patterns of attribution regarding future performance
  45. Mastery orientation
    Belief that one is capable of accomplishing difficult tasks
  46. Learned helplessness
    Belief that you have little or no control over your environment and that you do no have the ability to accomplish tasks
  47. Diversity in Motivation
    • Both nature and nurture
    • Gender stereotypes affect children's self-efficacy for certain roles
    • Culture and ethnicity may affect self-efficacy for academic and future success
    • Cultural differences are also seen in the career and activity choices of children
  48. Motivating Children and Adolescents
    • Focus on promoting intrinsic motivation
    • Focus on enhancing children's self-efficacy for mastering important knowledge and skills
    • Encourage children to set goals
    • Help children to refocus their efforts after failures
    • Help children meet their social goals
    • Use extrinsic reinforcers only when necessary
    • Be aware of at-risk students' needs
    • Minimize comparison and competition among children 
    • Expose children to successful models with characteristics and backgrounds similar to their own
  49. School
    • Classroom climate is important (Nurturing, supportive, warm)
    • Instructional methods should be engaging and foster cooperative behavior
    • Participation in school activities and events
    • Aid in socialization of children
  50. Tips for teachers
    • Uncover the hidden curriculum
    • Consider the hidden messages learned by children about school

    • When communicating high expectations it's important to:
    • Learn more about the student's background and home environment
    • Collaborate with fellow educators to maximize academic success at a school level
  51. Transitions to New Schools
    • Entering a new schools requires adjustment
    • In elementary school children must adjust to peers and teachers, as well as structure and rules

    • In secondary school there are 2 main transitions (Junior high and High school)
    • Secondary schools are not always structured to support and meet adolescents' developmental needs
  52. Society
    • Large group of people 
    • All live in a particular region
    • All share certain customs

    • Plays an important role by providing children with services
    • Child care
    • Early childhood intervention programs
    • After-school programs
    • Religious groups and affiliation
Card Set
HDEV 402 Weeks 7-8 Quiz
Development of Thought