CH 4 Learning Differences and Learning Needs

  1. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    What are the advantages of and problems with labels?
    Can become both stigmas and self-fulfilling prophecies but can also open doors of opportunitites
  2. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    What is person-first language?
    emphasizes it's about the student first, not the issue

    examples: students with disabilities, students at risk
  3. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    Distinguish between a disability and a handicap
    Disability=inability to do something specific

    Handicap=disadvantaged in certain situations

    Disabilities may lead to handicaps but not always
  4. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    What is g?
    G equals general intelligence to perform any mental test

    each test also requires specific abilities in addition to g
  5. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    What is Gardner's view of intelligence and his position on g?
    Gardner argues there are more intelligences like

    • linguistic
    • musical
    • spatial
    • logical-mathetmatical
    • bodily-kinesthetic
    • interpersonal
    • intrapersonal
    • naturlist
    • and existential

    doesn't deny g but questions usefulness
  6. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    What are the elements in Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?
    cognitive approach to understanding intelligence:

    Analytic/componential=mental processes defined in terms of metacomponents, performance, and knowledge-acquisition

    Creative/experiential intelligence=coping with nexperiences thorugh insight

    Practical/contextual=choosing to live and owrk in a context where success is likely, adapting that context, and reshaping it
  7. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    How is intelligence measured, and what does an IQ score mean?
    Individual tests and group tests (group tests are less accurate of anyone's ability)

    Average score is 100

    68% will earn IQs of 85=115 (for whites and native-born Americans w English as 1st language)

    Intelligence predicts success in school but not in life
  8. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    What is the Flynn effect and what are its implications?
    The increased difficulty in tests because IQscores have been rising.

    Affects any program who uses IQ for entrance requirements

    People who weren't labeled as having learning problems a generation ago might now be identified as such
  9. Intelligence (p.116-128)

    Are there sex differences in cognitive abilities?
    Girls better on verbal tests and writing

    Males better on mental rotation of objects

    Males more variable than girls

    Research on causes have been inconclusive but indicate that academic socialization and teacher's treatment may play a role
  10. Learning and Thinking Styles (pp. 128-130)

    Distinguish between learning styles and learning preferences
    Learning styles=way a person approaches learning/studying

    Learning preferences=preference for learning modes and environments

    Not related to intelligence but may affect performance
  11. Learning and Thinking Styles (pp. 128-130)

    Should teachers match instruction to individual learning styles?
    Most research show no benefit

    students would do better to develop new ways to learn
  12. Learning and Thinking Styles (pp. 128-130)

    What learning style distinctions are the most well supported by research?
    • Deep vs surface processing
    • Deep=understanding underlying concepts or meanings
    • Surface=memorization

    2nd is Mayer's visualizer-verbalizer dimension that has three facts: cognitive spatial ability, cognitive style(visual vs verbalizer), learning preference(visual vs verbalizer)
  13. Individual Differences and the Law (p 130-135)

    Describe the main legal requirement that pertain to students with disabilities
    Public Law 94-142 (1975) and the Individuals w Disabilities Education Act requirements are

    students should be educated in least restrictive environment with an Individualized Education Plan (IEP).

    Also protects parents

    Voc Rehab Act (1973) prevents discrimination based on disabilities in any program that receives federal funding (public schools)

    Section 504 ensures all children equal opportunity to participate in school activities
  14. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What does research in neuroscience tell us about learning problems?
    Studies show differences in brain structures for those with learning disabilities

    Also issues with long-term memory, transforming new information, important bits of information keep getting lost
  15. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What is a learning disability?
    disorders in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using psoken or written language.

    Like listening, speaking, reading,writing, reasoning, mathmatical abilities
  16. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What is ADHD and how is it handled in school?
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Drugs to control this are controversial

    use of motivational training in learning and memory stratgies and behavior modification seem effective

    SMART approach focuses on abilities of children
  17. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What are the most common communication disorders?
    speech impairments (articulation disorders, stuttering, and voicing problems)

    oral language disorders
  18. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What are the best approaches for students with emotional and behavioral disorders?
    applied behavioral analysis and direct teaching of social skills

    students respond to structure, organization, schedules, activities, and rules
  19. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What are some warning signs of potential suicide?
    • changes in eating or sleeping habits
    • weight
    • grades
    • disposition
    • activity level
    • or interest in friends
    • give away prized possessions
    • depressed or hyperactive
    • missing school or quit doing work
    • talks about suicide
    • has a plan for carrying it out
  20. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What defines intellectual disabilities?
    Before 18, score below 70 on standard measure of intelligence and have problems with adaptive behavior, day to day independent living, social functioning

    also the ammoutn of support a person requires to function

    support=intermittent to limited to extensive to pervasive
  21. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    How can schools accommodate the needs of students with physical disabilities?
    Architectural features (ramps, elevators, accessible rest rooms, peers to help movements and transitions, teachers allows for physical limitations)
  22. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    How would you handle a seizure in class?
    • Don't restrain child's movement
    • Low child to the floor
    • Turn child's head to the side
    • Put soft blanket under head
    • Loosen tight clothing
    • Don't put anything in student's mouth

    • Get medical help if
    • student doesn't regain consciousness in between seizures
    • student is pregnant
    • seizure goes on for more than 5 minutes
  23. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What are some signs of visual and hearing impairments?
    • Visual Problems
    • Holding books very close or far away
    • Squinting
    • Rubbing eyes
    • Misreading chalkboard
    • Holding head at an odd angle

    Audio problems

    • Turning one ear toward speakers
    • Favoring one ear
    • Misunderstanding conversation

    • Other signs
    • not following directions
    • distraction/confusion
    • frequently asking people to repeat themselves
    • mispronouncing words or names
    • reluctancy to participate
  24. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    How does autism differ from Asperger syndrome?
    Asperger syndrom is one aspect of autistm spectrum disorder

    Asperger syndrome are usually average to above average intelligence and have better language abilities than those with autism
  25. Students with Learning Challenges (pp 136-155)

    What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?
    RTI is an approach to supporting students with learning problems as early as possible

    • 3 tiered
    • 1) strong well researched way of teaching all students
    • 2) extra support and additional small group instruction
    • 3) one one one intensive help
  26. Students Who Are Gifted and Talented (p 155-160)

    What are the characteristics of gifted students?
    Learn easily and rapidly and retain it

    use common sense and practical knowledge

    Known many things other children don't

    use a large number of words easily and accurately

    recognize relations and comprehend meaning

    alert and keenly observant and respond quickly

    persistent and highly motivated

    creative and make interesting connections
  27. Students Who Are Gifted and Talented (p 155-160)

    Is acceleration a useful approach with gifted students?
    Most studies say yes and they do as well as those non-gifted who are at a normal pace

    Gifted students tend to like company of those who are older
Card Set
CH 4 Learning Differences and Learning Needs
CH 4 midterm review