CH 3 The Self, The Social, and Moral Development

  1. Physical Development (p. 70-75)

    Describe the changes in physical development of children in the preschool, elementary, and secondary grades.
    Preschool- rapid development of gross and fine-motor skills

    Elementary-physical development with girls ahead of boys in size

    Secondary grades-adolescence, puberty, emotional struggles related to that
  2. Physical Development (p. 70-75)

    What are some of the consequences of early and late maturation for boys and girls?
    • Females faster than boys
    • Early males=high social status but also more delinquent
    • Same for all ethnicities
    • Early females=bad (body issues, etc).
  3. Physical Development (p. 70-75)

    What is the role of recess and physical activity in development?
    • supports 
    • -brain development
    • -language
    • -social development

    children release tension and learn to solve problems, adapt to new situations, negotiate, and coorporate

  4. Physical Development (p. 70-75)

    What are some of the signs of eating disorders?
    • pale
    • brittle fingernails
    • fine dark hairs all over body
    • easily chilled
    • depressed
    • insecure
    • moody
    • lonely
    • stopped menstrual period
  5. Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development (pp.75-87)

    Describe Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model of development
    Theory takes into account both biological and social and cultural contexts that shape development.

    • Each person develops inside
    • microsystem=immediate relationships and activities inside
    • mesosytem=relationships among microsystems
    • and embedded in an
    • exosystem=larger social settings like communities all of which are part of the
    • macrosystem=culture

    Lastly, these are all influenced by the time period (chronosytem)
  6. Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development (pp.75-87)

    What are some aspects of the family that affect students in school?
    Parenting styles

    Authoritative parents (listen to children, encourage independence, place limits and consequences, warmth and nuturance, etc) =children are happy, relates well with others

    Authoritarian parents(strict rules, demanding, no options, punish w/no explanation)= children feel guilty or depressed

    Permissive parents (few rules, inconsistent with rules, more friend than parent, loving, use bribery)=children have trouble interacting with peers

    Culture also plays a role.  Asian and African students do better with higher-controlling parents
  7. Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development (pp.75-87)

    How does divorce affect students?
    Leaving behind important friendships when support is needed most

    one parent=less time to be with them

    adjusting to new family structures
  8. Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development (pp.75-87)

    Why are peer relationships important?
    significant role in personal and social development

    close friends as children=higher self esteem and capable of maintaining intimate relationships as adults

    Rejected children=more problems like dropping out of school and committing crimes
  9. Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development (pp.75-87)

    What are peer cultures?
    Groups students develop with norms for appearance and behavior
  10. Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development (pp.75-87)

    How can teachers' academic and personal caring affect students?
    High achieving and high SES students=academic caring is more important

    Studnets whoa re alienated=personal caring is more important
  11. Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development (pp.75-87)

    What are some signs of child abuse?
    • unexplained bruises
    • bites
    • injuries
    • fatigue
    • depression
    • absences
    • poor hygiene
    • inappropriate clothing
    • problems with peers and others
  12. Self Concept and Identity (P.87-99)

    What are Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
    Erikson emphasis on the relationship between society and the individual is a psychosocial theory of development=connects individual with social environment

    8 stages with strong personal and social competence creating a foundation to solve future crises

    • 1st and 2nd stage=infant develops trust over mistrust and autonomy over shame and doubt
    • 3rd stage=initiative and avoiding guilt
    • 4th stage=sense of industry and avoiding inferiority
    • 5th stage=identity vs role confusion-->achieve identity
    • 3 adult stages=intimacy, generativity, and integrity
  13. Self Concept and Identity (P.87-99)

    What are Marcia's 4 stages?
    Identity achievement=exploring realistic options and committed to them

    Moratorium=exploration with a delay in commitment to personal and occupational choices  (identity crisis)

    Identity foreclosure=commitment without exploration

    Identity diffusion=do not explore any options or commit to any acctions
  14. Self Concept and Identity (P.87-99)

    Describe the formation of ethnic and racial identities.
    Challenge=forming an identity living in two worlds (values, beliefs, and behaviors) of their group and the larger culture.

    Process: being aware of differences, find different ways of negotiating the differences, integration of both cultures
  15. Self Concept and Identity (P.87-99)

    How does self-concept change as children develop?
    increasingly complex, differentiated, and abstract as we mature.

    Evolves through constant reflection, social interaction, and experiences in and out of school

    Students compare themselves to both personal and social standards
  16. Self Concept and Identity (P.87-99)

    Distinguish between self-concept and self-esteem
    Self-concept and Self-esteem are beliefs about self.

    Self-concept=scheme around impressions, feelings, and attitudes about ourselves

    Self-esteem=evaluation of self worth
  17. Self Concept and Identity (P.87-99)

    Are there differences in self-concepts for girls and boys?
    1st-12th grade=boys and girls go down in math confidence

    Highschool boys and girls are = in math

    Highschool boys=better at sports

    Highschool girls=higher in language arts

    Middleschool=decline self esteem for both boys and girls

    Highschool=boys self esteem up, girls is down
  18. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    What is a theory of mind and why is it important?
    Understanding people are people too and have their own mind, thoughts, feelings, etc

    Important because children need to understand that others have their own mind and intentions
  19. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    How do perspective-taking skills change as students mature?
    Young children=think everyone thinks the same

    as they mature=learn people have separate identities and intentions
  20. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    What are the key differences among the preconventional, conventional, and postconventional levels of moral reasoning? (Kohlberg's 3 levels)
    preconventional=judgments based on self interest

    conventional=judgments based on traditional social norms

    postconventional=judgments based on abstract and personal ethical principals

    Critics say Kohlberg doesn't account for culture
  21. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    Describe Gilligan's level of moral reasoning
    Gilligan argued that women develop differently

    • "Ethic of care"
    • Moves from focus on self interest on moral reasoning based on commitment to specific individuals to principles of responsibility and care for all

    Women more likely to have a care orientation
  22. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    How does thinking in the moral and conventional domains change over time?
    young child=justice means equal treatment for all

    adult= morality involves beneficence and fairness and moral principles are independent of social norms
  23. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    What influences moral behavior?
    Adults through instruction, supervision, reward, punishment, and modeling.
  24. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    What are the different types of aggression?
    Peer aggression=instrumental in achieving privilege or gaining an object or hostile intending to harm.

    hostile aggression can be overt or relational

    boys are more likely to use overt aggression while girls are more likely to use relational
  25. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    How does ever-present media affect aggression and empathy?
    many negative models of behavior

    children internalize the messages from these "authority" figures on norms for aggression and empathy
  26. Understanding OThers and Moral Development (pp.99-108)

    Why do students cheat?
    Pressure.  if it's great enough and they chances of getting caught are slim, they'll cheat.
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CH 3 The Self, The Social, and Moral Development
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