lecture exam 2

  1. supplies for collecting herbarium species
    • field notebook
    • pocket knife/pruning shears
    • digging tools
    • gps
    • hand lens of at least 10x
    • plastic jug with water for moistening specimens
    • camera
    • vasculum or plastic bag
    • pencil or pen with indelible ink
    • plant press
  2. additional items professionals may need for collecting herbarium species
    • string tags
    • collecting vials and jars
    • FAA and Carnoy's fixing solution
    • seed envelopes
    • highway, topographic, or geologic maps
    • pole pruner
    • plastic flagging
    • folding pruning saw
  3. plant press parts and size
    • 12 x 18 in
    • two straps
    • blotters
    • corrugates
    • newspaper
  4. straps
    must be long enough to encircle a full plant press and strong enough to withstand considerable tightening
  5. blotters
    made of heavy blotting paper and used to absorb moisture from specimen
  6. corrugates
    • sheets of cardboard cut to the same size as press
    • corrugates must run the width of the cardboard
    • act as air vents
    • press is dried with the long side down over heat
  7. newspaper sheets
    use to hold the specimens that are meant to be mounted
  8. order of items in a press:
    corrugate, blotter, newspaper, specimen, newspaper, blotter corrugate
  9. if you press plants in the field..
    save a few small branches with flowers in fresh condition to key out later
  10. try to keep specimens,,,
    cool and damp
  11. how to arrange your specimen
    • arrange to show as many characters of the plant as possible
    • turn over some leaves to show both surfaces
    • press flower so reproductive parts can be seen and counted
    • fold whole plants into N, V, or W
    • press smaller herbs whole including roots
    • fleshy parts should be sectioned along their long axis into flat sections 1/4 in thick
    • hard fruits and cones dried in sun and placed in paper bag
    • place collection number on outside lower right hand corner of each newspaper
    • if specimen is difficult, press it for a few hours, then open and rearrange the flowers and leaves
  12. if corolla is ___ cut it open
  13. fleshy parts ....
    rhizomes, bulbs, some fruits
  14. number your plants...
    • starting with 1 and record your field notes as you collect.
    • never repeat a number
  15. if you make more than one sheet of the same species at the same time
    each is given the same collection number
  16. how your specimens are referenced in publications:
    your name and the collection number
  17. what goes in field notebook
    • date
    • location
    • habitat
    • notes
  18. date:
    • day, month and year
    • only given once and all following numbers are collected that day
  19. location:
    • country, state, county (only given once)
    • exact location where plant was collected
  20. habitat:
    • associated species
    • soil type
    • etc.
    • only given once
  21. notes:
    • descriptive info about the plant and its microhabitat
    • info not evident from dry specimen
  22. things not evident from dry specimen
    fragrance, height, floral color
  23. other useful info for notebook:
    • local common names
    • local uses
    • etc.
  24. labels
    • heading
    • scientific name
    • locality
    • habitat
    • name of collector
    • collection number
    • date
  25. additional label information
    • associated plants
    • flower color
    • pollinators
    • bark
    • abundance
    • DBH
    • life form
    • economic uses
  26. heading:
    country, state, institution
  27. scientific name
    fameily, species name (including authority)
  28. locality
    location, beginning with county
  29. habitat
    • vegetation type
    • soil
    • elevation
  30. Mounting size
    11.5 x 16.5 in
  31. ____used to hold down the specimen until the glue has dried
    pieces of scrap iron such as wheel weights
  32. loose pieces are...
    placed in small fragment folders and attached to mounting paper
  33. after specimen mounted
    label is attached and herbarium name and accession number is stamped on paper
  34. Herbarium includes
    collection of dried and pressed plants arranged in some order and available for reference or study
  35. who started the first herbarium?
    Luca Ghini
  36. ___public herbaria in the world
  37. functions of herbaria
    • provide standard reference collection for verifying and identifying newly collected plants
    • serve as reference collection for plant courses
    • train graduate and undergrad students in herbarium practices
    • document the presence of a species at a location (data on geographic range)
    • samples of flora of an area
    • point out existence of classification problems
    • provide plant material and data for analysis
    • preserving type specimens
  38. small herbarium filing
    alphabetical by family, genus, species
  39. larger herbaria filing
    • one of the well known systems of classification:
    • Engler and Prantl
    • Bentham and Hooker
  40. ___ are usually housed separately from general collection because of their special value
    type specimens
  41. most common pests of dried plant collections
    Dermestid beetles
  42. Dermestid beetle control
    • repellants
    • fumigants
    • heat or freeze new specimens at +/- 60 C for six hours
  43. repellants examples
    • PDB
    • Napthalene
  44. before returning specimen
    add annotation labels to specimen
  45. herbarium rules
    • sheets should be kept flat
    • don't flip through the sheets, lift one at a time and put it aside
    • support specimens on a sheet of cardboard when carrying them
    • heavy object, elbows, and books should not be placed on specimen
    • should be studied only with a long-armed microscope to avoid bending sheets
  46. ____ plays supporting role in herbaria
    society of herbarium curators
  47. ____ reports on current events in the herbarium community
    The Vasculum
  48. ____ started the JMUH
    Norlyn Bodkin
  49. JMUH currently has
    • 20 full-size cabinets
    • 13 half-size cabinets
    • full size drying oven
    • upright specimen freezer
    • 3 swing arm dissecting microscopes
    • 20 + complete plant presses
  50. Identification may be accomplished several ways...
    • use a key
    • compare an unknown plant with labeled herbarium specimen
    • consult an expert on the particular taxon`
  51. ideally, beginner should select a freshly collected plant with...
    roots, stems, leaves, flowers and/or fruits, and seeds
  52. to observe a plant properly:
    • good hand lens of at least 10x magnification
    • pair of sharp-pointed forceps
    • straight dissecting needle
    • some single-edged razor blades
  53. things to observe when IDing a plant
    • woody or herbaceous (annual or perennial)
    • flower and name parts
    • count sepals and petals
    • sepals and petals fused or separate?
    • number of stamens, where they are attached, any fusion of filaments or anthers, disposition of anthers
    • number of pistils, styles, and sigmas of gynoecium
    • remove parianth and stamens, make a cross section of the ovary and count the number of locules. how many ovules and type of placentation?
    • select another flower and make a longitudinal section of flower.  Note ovary positionand any fusion of parianth
    • leaf type, arrangement, and venation
    • distribution and kinds of surface coverings
  54. First modern key:
    Lamarck's Flora Francois
  55. steps in ID manuals
    • use keys to determine family
    • key to the genera to provide generic name
    • key to find species
  56. keys in floras are usually ____
  57. diagnostic keys
    state only the conspicuous or key characters
  58. each pair of choices is called a ____
  59. first contrasting characters in each couplet
    primary key characters
  60. Preparing a key steps....ugh....
    • should be dichotomous
    • first word of each lead couplet should be identical
    • two parts of couplet should have contradictory statements
    • avoid overlapping ranges or vague generalities
    • couplets should have positive statements
    • use readily observable features
    • leads of consecutive couplets shouldn't begin with the same word
    • may need to provide two sets of keys in some groups (flowering vs fruiting)
    • couplets of a key may be numbered or lettered or use some combination or left blank and indented
  61. most common type of key
  62. bracket/parallel key
    • two couplets always next to each other in consevutive lines
    • at the end of each line there is either a name or number referring to a couplet later in the key
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lecture exam 2