Biology Test II

  1. For humans to move we need three things
    • 1. muscles
    • 2. Bones (levers)
    • 3. joints (hinge)
  2. 3 main types of joints
    • hinge joint
    •    elbow (uni-axial hinge moves in 1 direction)
    • ball and socket joint
    •    shoulder/hip
    • pivot joint
    •    radius (thumb side) rotates
  3. Why do muscles only contract
    • they most work in opposition
    • the contractile unit of a muscle is the sacromere
    • Muscle contraction is controlled by motor neurons in the central nervous system
    • lots of nerves in fingers= fine motor control
  4. 2 proteins in muscles
    • myosin (thick filaments)
    • Actin (thin filaments)
    • actin is like a rope and myosin is like people playing tug o war
    • when you relax the myosin lets go of the actin
    • ATP binds to myosin and signals to let go, when you burn ATP this is the signal to pull
    • rigor mortis= not making ATP
  5. Urinary system
    • (bowels defecate urinary system excretes)
    • Purpose to filter and dispose of
    • 1. nitrogenous waste 2. Toxins
    • recover
    • 1. water 2. salt 3. nutrients
  6. osmosis
    • water moves across a semi-permeable membrane (salt cannot pass) to the solution/ region with the highest solute concentration
    • water acts to dilute solute
    • Tonicity= way to measure osmosis
  7. Hypo, Iso, and hyper tonic
    • hypotonic= water moves out of solution and into cell (cell expands)
    • isotonic= water moves in both directions at the same rate 
    • hypertonic- water moves out of cell and into solution (cell shrinks)
  8. 3 types of nitrogenous waste
    • Ammonia very soluble and toxic
    • Urea intermediate
    • Uric Acid poor solubility and toxicity
  9. Anatomy of the Urinary System
    Kidney, renal artery/vein, ureters, bladder, urethra

    you need blood flow to the kidney so that water can be removed from the blood and used to make urine
  10. Glomerulus
    • capillary bed/filter (filters the blood), sits inside Bowman's capsule
    • blood cells will stay in the glomerulus  and the plasma (fluid portion of the blood) will be squeezed into Bowman's capsule
  11. Loop of Henle
    • 2 jobs
    • 1. (Descending) reabsorb H2O
    • 2. (Ascending) reabsorb NaCl
  12. Atrial Natriuretic Peptid
    increases urine output decreases blood pressure
  13. Antidiuretic hormone
    decreases urine output increases blood pressure
  14. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system
    decreases urine output, maintains osmetic balance
  15. Alcohol
    increases urine output
  16. Salt
    decreases urine output
  17. caffine
    increases urine output
  18. Diabetes and high blood sugar
    • increase in urine output
    • because he sugar goes into the nephron, with diabetes you cannot recover all the sugar in the proximal convoluted tubule therefore it remains in the loop of Henle and water follows the solute so the water will follow the glucose into the urine
  19. respiratory system
    • mouth and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, diaphragm, lungs
    • depends on the respiratory and circulatory systems
  20. capillaries
    • made of simple (thin) squamous (pancake like) epithelium (covering)
    • surround the aveoli (attached to bronchiole) on the lungs for GAS EXCHANGE
  21. inhalation
    • air inhaled
    • rib cage expands as rib muscles contract
    • diaphragm contracts (moves down)
  22. exhalation
    • air exhaled
    • rib cage gets smaller as muscles relax
    • diaphragm relaxes (moves up)
  23. gases
    • move from high concentration to low concentration 
    • high partial pressure to low partial pressure
    • partial pressures are the pressures of each individual gas
  24. circulatory system
    • connects lungs to the cells in the body, the heart is the pump that drives the circulatory system
    • blood moves away from the heart in arteries (have to be stronger)  and towards the heart in veins (has valves to push blood forward and stop blood from flowing backwards)
    • capillaries lie between the arteries and veins for GAS EXCHANGE
  25. Systemic system
    • only in the systemic system
    • arteries= oxygenated
    • veins= deoxygenated
    • oxygen is carried in the blood bound to the protein hemoglobin
  26. Blood (55% Plasma)
    • water
    • salt ions
    • plasma proteins
    • substances transported by blood
  27. Blood (45% Cellular Elements)
    • Erythrocytes (red blood cells) 5-6 million
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells) 5,000-10,000
    • red blood cells transports oxygen
    • platelets= blood clotting
  28. Blood Pressure
    • measure pressure waves of blood flow
    • systolic= when your pushing (high pressure)
    • diastolic= when blood is flowing (low pressure)
  29. Breathing
    normal breathing rate controlled by Carbon Dioxide concentration (except when you are suffocating)

    • CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 (Carbonic acid) = H+ + HCO3 - (bicarbonate)
    • proton = low pH
    • receptors in your brain check the pH of your blood (more acidic = faster you breathe)
  30. how is carbon dioxide moved in the blood
    a little attaches to the protein of the hemoglobin almost all of it is dissolved in the water of the plasma
  31. myo
    muscle, myoglobin found in the muscles (what makes it red)
  32. nervous system
    • 3 things
    • 1. sensory input
    • 2. integration function
    • 3. motor output
  33. central nervous system
    • brain and spinal chord
    • the cerebrum (makes you you)
    • cerebellum (balance and coordination)
    • brainstem (autonomic functions (pons, medulla, midbrain))
    • cerebrum or cerebral hemisphere (higher order brain functions)
    • Forebrain (cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus)
  34. peripheral nervous system
    • cranial nerves, ganglia outside CNS, and spinal nerves
    • ganglia- group of neuron bodies outside the spinal column
  35. neuron
    are made up of many nerves (which are made up of groups of axons or dendrites) signals move into dendrites or cell body and out the axon
  36. synapse
    space between synaptic terminal and the target cell
  37. myelin sheath
    • insulation made by schwann cells
    • schwann cell like a pancake- wraps around the axon multiple times (prevents short circuit)
    • in between the myelin sheath parts not covered called node of ranvien (make signal go faster)
  38. 2 major target cells for neurons
    • muscle cells (motor neurons)
    • other neurons
    • glands, receptor cells (not major)
  39. Summation
    • both positive and negative signals are summed before the nueron can send electrical impulse (action potential) down its axon to the next cell
    • you have to get above signalling threshold by getting more positive than negative signals
  40. Serotonin
    • neurotransmitters
    • often a relaxation or calming (negative signal to slow things down)
  41. Acetylcholine
    • neurotransmitter
    • signals muscle contraction
  42. PNS- somatic nervous system
    motor functions under conscience control
  43. PNS- Autonomic nervous system
    • sympathetic division (fight or flight)
    • parasympathetic division (rest and digest)
    • enteric division (digestion)
  44. the cerebrum
    (makes you you)
  45. cerebellum
    (balance and coordination)
  46. brainstem
    (autonomic functions (pons, medulla, midbrain))
  47. cerebrum or cerebral hemisphere
    (higher order brain functions)
  48. Forebrain
    (cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus)
  49. Limbic System
    attaches emotions to memory (making memories stronger)
  50. SSRI
    selective seretonin reuptake inhibitors
  51. Gustation
    • taste
    • stimulus- chemical
  52. olfaction
    • smell
    • stimulus- chemical
  53. vision
    stimulus- light
  54. hearing
    stimulus- sound
  55. balance
    stimulus- gravity/ inertia
  56. chemical senses
    • gustation and olfaction (their chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solutions (saliva and snot))
    • temperature texture and pain all affect taste
    • taste is 80% smell
  57. Eyes
    • 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eye
    • Iris- colored part
    • Pupil- regulates the amount of light entering the eye
    • Retina- two layered membrane, pigmented layer that absorbs light
    • optic disc- where optic nerve leaves the eye
    • lens- transparent
  58. eyesight
    • emmetropic- normal
    • myopic- (near sighted) the focal point is in front of the retina
    • hyperopic- (far sighted) the focal point is behind the retina
  59. ear
    • outer and middle ear involved with hearing
    • inner ear= hearing and balance
    • bones in inner ear- Malleus, Stapes, and Incus (all in tympanic cavity) transmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval window
  60. sound
    • frequency/wavelength (pitch) (Hz)
    • amplitude (loudness/volume) (dB)
Card Set
Biology Test II
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