Sociology Chapter 3 (culture & Language)

  1. What is culture?
    Totality learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior

    Includes ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groups of people
  2. What is the largest form of human groups?
  3. What does culture influence?
    Human behavior
  4. Who created the culture industry?
    Theodore Adorno
  5. What is culture industry?
    Force that standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers, and limits people choices
  6. What is cultural universal?
    Common practices and beliefs that all societies have developed

    adaptations to meet essential human needs
  7. What is ethnocetrism?
    Tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to others
  8. What is cultural relativism?
    People's behaviors from the perspective of their own culture
  9. What is sociobiology?
    Systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior
  10. Sociobiology was founded by which theory?
    Darmin's Theory of Evolution
  11. What is innovation?
    Process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
  12. What is discovery?
    Making known an aspect of reality (oxygen)
  13. What is invention?
    Existing items are combined into form that did not exist before (bow & arrow)
  14. What is Diffusion?
    process by which cultural item spreads from group to group
  15. What is McDonaldization?
    Process through which principles of fast-food industry come to dominate society
  16. Who created the McDonaldization?
  17. What is technology?
    information about how to use material resources to satisfy human needs
  18. Who created the definition of technology?
  19. What is material culture?
    physical or technological aspects of daily lives
  20. What is nonmaterial culture?
    Ways of using material objects
  21. What is cultural lag?
    Period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions
  22. Who created the definition of culture lag?
  23. What is subculture?
    Segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of language, norms, and values (football or soccer fans)
  24. what is Argot?
    The language that distinguishes a subculture from the wider society
  25. What is counterculture?
    Subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture (draft resistance during Vietnam war)
  26. What is culture shock?
    Feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture
  27. What is language?
    System of word and symbols for all aspects of culture
  28. What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?
    Language precedes thought, you need to learn a language in order to thing

    Language is not a given, it is culturally determined

    Language gives shape and color to the way we see the world
  29. What is nonverbal communication?
    Use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate
  30. What are symbols?
    gestures, objects, and words that form basis of human communication
  31. What are norms?
    Established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  32. what are formal norms?
    Generally written; they specify punishments and rewards
  33. What are informal norms?
    Generally understood, but not precisely recorded
  34. What are mores?
    Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
  35. What are folkways?
    Norms governing everyday behavior
  36. What are sanctions?
    Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norm (or, norms about norms)
  37. What are positive sanctions?
    pay raises, medals, and words of grattitude
  38. What are negative sanctions?
    Fines, threats, imprisonment, and stares of contempt
  39. What are cultural values?
    Collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper or bad, undesirable, and improper

    Influence people's behavior

    criteria for evaluating actions of others

    values may change

    cultural values may divide a society 
  40. What is cultural war?
    Polarization of society over controversial cultural elements
  41. What is dominant ideology?
    Set of cultural beliefs and practices that help maintain powerful interests  
Card Set
Sociology Chapter 3 (culture & Language)