Chapter 1 Science

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  1. How many types of evidence do geologists have to learn about the Earth's interior?
    Two main types
  2. What are the two main types of evidence used to learn about Earth's interior?
    Direct evidence from rock samples and indirect evidence from seismic waves.
  3. What are the three main layers of the Earth?
    The three main layers of the Earth are the crust, mantle and core.
  4. How do these layers vary?
    They vary greatly in size, composition, temperature, and pressure.
  5. What is the crust?
    The crust is a layer of solid rock that includes both dry land and ocean floor.
  6. What is the Earth's mantle made of?
    The mantle is made up of rock that is very hot, but solid.
  7. How do scientists divide the mantle?
    Scientists divide the mantle into layers based on physical characteristics.
  8. What is the core made up of?
    The core is made mostly of the metals iron and nickel.
  9. How many parts does the core consist of?
    The core consists of 2 parts - a liquid outer core and a solid inner core.
  10. What causes convection currents in the mantle?
    Heat from the core and the mantle causes convection currents in the mantle.
  11. What causes Earth's magnetic field?
    Convection currents in the liquid nickel and iron outer core causes Earth's magnetic field.
  12. What is Pangaea called?
    Pangaea is called a "super continent"
  13. What was Wegener's hypothesis?
    Wegener's hypothesis was that all the continents had once been joined together in a single landmass and have since drifted apart.
  14. How did Wegener gather evidence from different scientific fields to support his ideas about continental drift?
    Wegener gathered evidence by studying land features, fossils, and evidence of climate change
  15. Could Wegener provide a satisfactory explanation for the force that pushes or pulls the continents?
    No Wegener could not provide a satisfactory explanation.
  16. How does the sea-floor spread?
    The sea floor spreads apart along both sides of a mid-ocean ridge as new crust is added.
  17. How does the ocean floor move?
    The ocean floor moves like conveyor belts, carrying the continents along with them.
  18. What evidence supported Hess's theory of sea-floor spreading?
    Evidence that supported Hess's theory were: fossils, eruptions of molten material, magnetic stripes in the rock of the ocean and the ages of rocks.
  19. How long did it take for part of the ocean floor to sink back into the mantle at deep-ocean trenches?
    The process took tens of millions of years.
  20. The Wheat does the theory of plate tectonics explain?
    The theory of plate tectonics explains the formation, movement, and subduction of Earth's plates.
  21. How many kinds of plate boundaries are there?
    There are 3 kinds of plate boundaries
  22. What are the 3 kinds of plate boundaries?
    Divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries and transform boundaries.
  23. True or False: A different type of plate movement occurs along each boundary.
  24. Vibrations that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
    Seismic waves
  25. The force exerted on a surface divided by the area over which the force is exerted
  26. A dark, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
  27. A usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
  28. The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
  29. a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
    outer core
  30. A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the earth.
    Inner core
  31. the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
  32. an under mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
    Mid-ocean ridge
  33. A device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves.
  34. The process by which molten materials adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
    Sea floor spreading
  35. A deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle.
    Deep-ocean trench
  36. The process by oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
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Chapter 1 Science
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