Genetics Flashcards

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  1. What is Genetics?
    is the scientific study of heredity.
  2. What is heredity
    is the passing of offspring from parents
  3. Define phenotype and genotype
    Phenotype is the characteristics and genotype are the genetic makeup

    • EX: g: Tt, Tt
    • Genotype ex: tall or short
  4. What is co-dominance
    is when both alleles completely show through in the phenotype
  5. What are incomplete dominance
    is when one allele is not completely dominant over another 

    Ex: A cross between red (RR) and white (NN) four o'clock plants product pink-colored flowers (RN)
  6. What are sex-linked traits
    is when genes are located on a sex chromosomes (X, Y)
  7. What does it mean if a trait has multiple alleles?
    means that their genes have more than two alleles
  8. What is the Law of Segregation
    is when homozygous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes
  9. What is Law of Independent Assortment
    states that genes are different traits that can segregate independently during the formation of gamates
  10. What is a gene?
    genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins and give an organism certain traits.
  11. What is an allele
    An allele is two or more forms of genes
  12. Define True-breeding
    is a homozygous organisms that always pass down a particular trait.
  13. What is a Polygentic trait and list 3 traits in humans that are polygentic
    is traits controlled by two or more genes.

    ex: Skin color, height, and eye color
  14. What is a pedigree and what is it used for?
    • Pedigree is an important tool for studying inherited diseases .
    • - they are used to figure out the genetic basis of a disease or trait from its inheritance pattern 
    • -predict the risk of disease in future offspring in a family (genetic counseling)
  15. Who was Gregor Mendel
    was the father of genetics
  16. During sexual reproduction, sperm and egg cells join in a process called__________
  17. What new cell does fertilization produce
  18. What did Mendel wanted to produce
    he wanted to produce seeds by joining male and female reproductive cells from two different plants
  19. producing seeds by joining a male and female reproductive cells from two different plants
  20. what is a trait
    a specific characteristics that varies from one individual to another
  21. What are hybrids
    the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
  22. What does the principle of dominance state
    states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
  23. When do alleles separate
    during gamete formation
  24. what is a punnett square
    the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
  25. If a disorder is dominant what will happen
    one of the parents must have the disorder and does not skip a generation
  26. What happens when a disorder is recessive
    neither parents has to have the disorder because they can be heterozygous carriers. Usually skips a generation
  27. Autosomal Recessive
    • -trait is rare in pedigree
    • -trait often skips generation and are hidden in heterozygous carriers 
    • -trait affects males and females equally
  28. Autosomal Dominant
    • -Trait is common in the pedigree 
    • - Trait is found in every generation 
    • - Affected individuals transmit the trait to approximately 1/2 of their children
  29. X-linked dominant
    • -trait is common in pedigree
    • - affected fathers pass to all of their daughters 
    • - an affected male will always have an affected mother
  30. X-linked recessive
    • - trait is rare in pedigree
    • -trait skips generations
    • - affected father DO NOT pass to their sons 
    • - Males are more often affected than females
    • - An affected female will always have an affected father
  31. Are X-linked dominant diseases normal
    • no they are extremely unusual.
    • Often, they are lethal (before birth) in males and only seen in females
  32. What happens in incomplete dominance
    the heterozygous phenotype is a blend between the two homozygous phenotypes
  33. Where can you see examples of codominance and multiple alleles
    in the human ABO blood type
  34. What is hemophilla
    is also an X-linked recessive disorder. It is characterized by delayed clotting of the blood
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Genetics Flashcards
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