Lymphoid Tissue

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  1. What are the Central lymphoid organs ?
    • Thymus 
    • Bone Marrow
  2. What are the peripheral lymph organs ?
    • Spleen
    • Lymphoid 
    • Solitary nodules
    • Tonsils 
    • Appendix
    • Peyer's Patches (of Ileum)
  3. What mediates "Cellular Immunity "
    T- Cells
  4. What mediates "Humoral Immunity " ?
  5. What does white pulp consist of ?
    It is lymphoid tissue that ensheaths central arteries and the lymphoid nodule appended to sheaths .
  6. What does red pulp consist of ?
    • Venus sinuses and pulp cords
    • A reticular network with
    • Macrophages 
    • Reticular Cells
    • Blood Cells
  7. What is the function of spleen ?
    • Production of Lymphocytes 
    • Destruction of Erythrocytes / Defense of the Organism
  8. In terms of the Anatomy of the lymph node 
    What is the trabecula ?
    What is the sub-capsular sinus ?
    What is the medullary sinus
    • -Connective Tissue
    • -Loose network of macrophages , reticular cells and fibers
    • -Capillary like structures
  9. In terms of the Anatomy of the lymph node ?Where do the afferent lymph vessels enter ?Where do the efferent vessels leave ?
    • around the convex surface 
    • leave through out the hilus
  10. Where are the most lymph nodules located ?
    in the cortex
  11. What leaves through the post capillary venules ?
  12. What is the purpose of the lymph nodes ?
    • Filter lymph 
    • Produce lymphocytes 
    • Respond to foreign substances
  13. Do primary nodules have a clear region and are they exposed to antigens ?

  14. What is the clear zone called in secondary nodules ? What is there a collection of in the secondary nodules ?
    Germinal Center

  15. What is the organization of lymph nodes ?
    Lymphoid cells , Reticular C.T , Reticular fibers , Reticular cells , macrophages
  16. what is the distribution of lymph nodules ?
    Tonsils , spleen , lamina propria of the G.I.  , Lamina propria of the respiratory system
  17. Where is the concentration of material in a reactive nodule ?
    • Germinal Center 
    • Mantle layer -lymphocytes form a cap to one side
  18. Where and what are Peyer's patches ?
    Aggregates of lymph nodes in Lamina Propria in the terminal ileum
  19. Are there lymph nodes in the appendix ?
  20. What is the Waldeyer's ring ?
  21. What does tonsils look like anatomically ?
    epithelially lined crypts that produce lymphocytes.
  22. What do palatine tonsils look like ?
    -Stratified squamous epithelium with deep crypts

    -It has a well defined basal C.T capsule

    -Pure mucous glands deep to capsule
  23. What does the lingual tonsil look like ?
    Shallow crypts with stratified squamous epithelial tissue.

    tongue muscle
  24. What does pharyngeal tonsil look like ?
    It has pseudostratified columnar ciliated squamous 

    shallow crypts 

    high lymphocyte infiltration
  25. Where can Hassall's corpuscles be found ? Does it stain dark or light ?

    Light staining
  26. Where do vessels enter the thymus ? are the thymus capillaries fenestrated ? Is there a thick or thin basal lamina ?
    Through the capsule 

    Non fenestrated

    thick basal lamina
  27. How do T-cells get to the the Thymus ?
    undifferentiated T-cells come from the bone marrow and enter the blood to the thymus
  28. What are the hormones that act on the Thymus ?
    • Somatotropin 
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • Male and female sex hormones
    • Protein growth hormones
  29. What is the dual embryonic origin of the Thymus ?
    epithelial and mesodermal
  30. What cells can be found in the cortex ? what type of fibers make up the cortex ? does it stain light or dark ?


  31. Explain the T-Cell pathway to Killer T-cells
    Bone Marrow > T-Lymphocyte > Thymus > Lymhp nodes and spleen activated spleen  > Lymphokines (acitvate macrophage) > Killer T cells
  32. Explain the B-Cell pathway ?
    Bone Marrow > Antigen contact >Plasma Cell >Antibody > (Neutrilization , Antigen Antibody complex , Complementation Osmotic lysis)
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Lymphoid Tissue
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