Swine Quiz 2

  1. What are some features of a farrowing crate?
    Has sow space and pig space to prevent crushing
  2. Sow Space as a farrowing crate feature
    • Durable floor that draws heat
    • Floor made of cast iron
    • Drip line to cool sow
  3. Pig Space as a farrowing crate feature
    • Thermoneutral floor: doesn't draw heat from pig 
    • Plastic: easy to clean
    • Heating pads: for steady heat
    • Heat lamps: that have bulbs to radiant 
    • Hovers: small, draft free, hot box for pigs
  4. What is the difference between Mortality and Morbidity?
    • Mortality is death 
    • Morbidity is the failure to thrive (abnormal)
  5. What percent of pigs will not make it to weaning?
    • 20%
    • 7% stillborn and 13% pre-wean mortality
  6. What needs to be done before putting the sow in the farrowing crate?
    • Wash and disinfect farrowing crate 
    • Make sure crate is dry 
    • Wash and disinfect sows 
    • Sows put in crate 24 hours prior to farrowing
  7. What does washing and disinfecting the sow prior to putting them in the crate do?
    • Control disease transfer from gestation to farrowing
    • The underline harbors bacteria and potential parasites
  8. What happens in impending parturition?
    • Swelling and reddening of Vulva (4 days pre)
    • Mammary gland taut and turbid (2 days pre) 
    • Mammary secretions (different levels)
    • Restlessness (nesting behavior)
    • Increased Respiration
    • About 1 hour prior to farrowing sow is very still 
    • Intermittent abdominal straining 
    • Sow draws legs to abdomen
    • Tail twitches rapidly as pig moves through final inches of birth canal
  9. What happens in normal farrowing?
    • 1st pig is the hardest
    • Straining strongest just before expulsion  
    • Every 15-20 minutes a new pig should be born
    • Placenta should pass within 4 hours after complete
  10. What is the normal pig presentation?
    • Nose first, front legs folded back 
    • Rear legs with front legs extended under chin
  11. What are signs of trouble with farrowing?
    • No new pigs for 35 minutes and sow still straining 
    • Meconium (piglet feces) without straining 
    • Sow exhaustion 
    • No placenta 4 hours after the last pig was born
    • Dystocia: birthing difficulty due to abnormal delivery position or canal obstruction
  12. What to do when assisting a sow with farrowing?
    • Patience: Allow at least 30 min before manual assistance 
    • Gentle: Small hands, trimmed fingernails, slow but steady pressure
    • Sanitary: warm soapy water, hands vulva, and obstetrical gloves
    • Lubricate: Liberal application to arm and hand to avoid friction
  13. Mechanical Assistance and farrowing
    • Instruments should not routinely used 
    • Last resort 
    • Disinfect and keep sterilized 
    • Not as tactile as fingertips
    • Prone to damage repro tract, infections 
    • Really consider culling this female
  14. Attend Farrowing
    • Does save more pigs 
    • Increasingly common 
    • Can be challenging on a 200 sow farm
    • Challenging but not impossible
  15. Newborn Pigs
    • Dry with fresh, clean towel 
    • Warm them 
    • Put them on a teat at about 5 min
    • Pigs should be nursing on their own w/in 15 min of birth
    • Receive colostrum 
    • Normal pigs 3 pounds at birth
  16. Colostrum
    • High in fat
    • Maternal antibodies that enter directly into pigs circulation (acquired immunity)
    • it is critical that pigs receive colostrum w/in 6 hours of birth
  17. Cross fostering
    • Moving pigs from 1 litter to another 
    • Very common
    • Every pig should have a productive teat to nurse
    • Do not balance number of pigs to sow
    • Should occur w/in first 24 hours of life
    • Move pigs and keep them there
    • Receive colostrum prior to moving
  18. Productive teat
    • Pigs establish which teat belongs to them very early 
    • Consistently return to that teat 
    • Defend that teat very strongly 
    • Sows nurse 1 every hour, milk flow for a very brief period of time (ready or not)
  19. Monitor Farrowing room
    • Pigs have full bellies
    • Sows are eating
    • Water system workign 
    • Sow passing manure
  20. Farrowing Room while sow is farrowing
    • Keep sow calm
    • Keep it quiet 
    • low lighting 
    • Don't walk in front of sow 
    • Don't process pigs while sows are farrowing 
    • Keep sow cards at back of crate 
    • Pig born every 15-20 min
  21. Nursing process
    • Initiating 
    • Phase 1 
    • Phase 2 
    • Phase 3 
    • Phase 4 
    • Phase 5&6
    • Termination
  22. Initiating
    • Pigs pursuing sow 
    • Sow lays down, head first 
    • Squealing stops
    • Sow low grunting
  23. Phase 1
    • Pigs jostling for position 20-60 seconds 
    • Squealing and clamoring for position 
    • Once every pig is in place, squealing stops
  24. Phase 2
    • Piglets butting the udder and suckling 
    • Vigorous head movement by piglets 
    • Stimulate oxytocin release by sow 
    • about 30 seconds
  25. Phase 3
    • Less butting more suckling 
    • About 20 seconds
  26. Phase 4
    • 10-20 seconds of milk flow
    • Pigs swallowing milk
    • Flat ears, stretched neck swallow 40-80 mL of milk per teat
  27. Phase 5 & 6
    • Milk flow stops 
    • Pigs keep suckling and massaging 
    • Head butting increases, trying to stimulate more milk
  28. Termination
    • Sow terminates suckling session by rolling over
    • Getting up and walking away of possible
  29. Nusring Pigs and sows
    • About 2 minutes every hour 
    • 40-80 mL released in 20 second time frame
    • If pigs don't quickly find their teat they are out of luck 
    • Try to avoid disrupting sow and litter during 2 minute nursing bouts
  30. Piglet processing
    • Wait until sow is finished farrowing and pigs have nursed 
    • 7 components of piglet processing
  31. 7 Components of Piglet Processing
    • Weigh litter and record litter weight
    • Note number of males and females 
    • Clip needle teeth
    • Administer iorn
    • Notch ear (or tattoo)
    • Castrate males
  32. Weigh litter and record litter weight
    • Measure of sow productivity 
    • Some producers prefer to select replacement gilts from litters with above average gilt numbers
  33. Clip Needle teeth
    • Use side cutters to remove 8 sharp needle teeth
    • 2 teeth top and bottom both sides 
    • Remove to prevent damage to udder and fighting
    • Clip not crush 
    • Need sharp side cutter
    • Complete within first 36 hours (teeth less likely to shatter --> infection)
  34. Clip tail
    • Remove distal 3/4 of tail 
    • Creates a greater sensitivity to tail biting
    • Leave at least 1/2 inch
    • Complete within first 36 hours so litter mates less likely to chew on healing tail
  35. Administer Iron
    • 200mg of iron into neck at 3-4 days of age
    • Inject in neck not the ham
    • Pig born with low iron reserves
    • Sows milk poor source of iron
    • 20 gauge 1/2 inch needle
  36. Notch ear
    • Permanently identify the pig 
    • Pigs right ear is litter number
    • Pigs left ear is pig number 
    • Max of notches/section 
    • Common to give gilts lower numbers
  37. Castrate Males
    • Surgically remove testicles at 3-7 days of age
    • Afer pigs have established nursing pattern
    • Before the pigs are too big for 1 person to handle
Card Set
Swine Quiz 2
Farrowing rooms