Praxis II

  1. Whole-interval recording
    • Behavior recorded when it occurs during the entire time interval
    • * Good for continuous behaviors
    • * Good for behaviors occurring in short duration
  2. Time Sampling Interval Recording
    • Divide time period into equal intervals, record whether or not behavior occurs during each interval
    • * Good when beginning/end is difficult to determine
    • * Good when only a brief period of time is available to observe
  3. Partial-Interval Recording
    • Behavior is scored if it occurs during any part of the time interval; multiple episodes of behavior in a single time are counted as one score.
    • * Good when behaviors occur at relatively low rates or inconsistent durations
  4. Momentary Time Sampling
    • Behavior scored as present or absent only during the moment that a timed interval begins
    • * Least biased estimate of behavior as it actually occurs
  5. Least Dangerous Assumption
    Better to err on the side of false positives so as to provide additional support to a student who may not need it rather than to deny additional support to a student in need as a result of a false negative
  6. Curriculum-Based Measure
    • Universal screener
    • Must align with local norms, benchmarks, and standards
  7. Cognitive Assessment Test (CogAT)
    • Universal screening
    • Group administered cognitive measure
  8. Response to Instruction and Intervention Process
    • 1. Student identified
    • 2. School psychologist gathers information
    • 3. Problem area is clearly defined
    • 4. Collect baseline data
    • 5. Implement RBI
    • 6. Collect data
    • 7. Analyze data
  9. RTII Expectation
    • Students should respond to intervention in age-expected ways; make progress and close the gap between baseline data and age-expected data
    • If the student does't grow within 30-60 days, special ed evaluation should be considered
  10. Best Practice in deciding WHAT to assess (RTII)
    • Subskill Mastery Measurement (SMM): collected to determine whether the specific intervention for the target behavior is effective
    • Collected frequently (daily)
    • General Outcome Measurement (GOM): collected to determine whether the student is making progress toward long-range goals
    • Collected less frequently (weekly)
  11. Best Practice in Deciding HOW to Assess and Present Data
    • Progress monitoring: systematic and repeated measurement of behavior over specified time
    • Three Levels of Analysis:
    • -- Analysis of variability in data
    • -- Analysis of level
    • -- Analysis of trend
  12. Best Practice in Analyzing Variability
    • Variability & Sources of Error
    • 1. Effectiveness of the intervention
    • 2. Confounding variable (environmental variables)
    • 3. Measurement error (due to observer)
  13. RTI Analysis of Level
    • Level: average performance within a condition
    • Condition occurs when a student's performance changes suddenly following a change in conditions; student's level of performance is often compared to the average level of performance of peers or to benchmark level
  14. RTI Analysis of Trend
    • Trend: pattern of change in a student's behavior across time
    • Multiple measurements required to estimate trend
  15. RTI Evaluation Points
    • Baseline data: no new highs or lows for 3 consecutive data points
    • 80% of points should fall within 15% of the mean
    • Minimum baseline points should be 3 to 5
  16. Changing RTI Intervention
    • 2 or 3 data points during the intervention fall below the aim line
    • If slope of the student's trend line is less than the slope of the aim line, intervention must be changed
    • No correct responses for 3 to 4 sessions
  17. Special Education Evaluation Requirements
    • Use both qualitative and quantitative data in their analysis for determination of special education eligibility
    • 1. Cognitive ability
    • 2. Achievement
    • 3. Communication
    • 4. Motor Skills
    • 5. Adaptive Skills
    • 6. Social, emotional, and behavioral functioning
    • 7. Sensory processing
  18. Cognitive Measures
    • WISC-IV (6 to 16:11)
    • DAS-II (2.5 to 17:11)
    • SB-IV (2 to 85+)
    • WPPSI-IV (2:5 to 7:5)
    • WAIS-V (16 to 74)
    • WJ Cog (2 to 90)
  19. Achievement Measures
    • WJ Ach (2 to 90)
    • WRAT-4 (5 to 94)
    • KTEA (grades 1-12)
    • WIAT (4 to 50)
    • K-SEALS, TERA, TEMA (early childhood)
  20. Memory Measures
    • Wechsler Memory Scale
    • TOMAL-2
    • WRAML-2
    • Working memory scales of WISC, DAS, WJ
  21. Executive Functioning (after age 8)
    • BRIEF
    • D-KEFS
    • NEPSY
    • Wisconsin Card Sort Test
    • Rey Complex Figure Test
    • CCPT
  22. Social/Emotional Measures
    • BASC-2
    • Devereux Scale of Mental Disorders
    • Reynolds Adjustment SCreening
    • Conner's Rating Scales
    • Beck Depression Inventory
    • RCMAS
  23. Functional Behavior Assessment Steps
    • 1. Operational definition of problem
    • 2. Assess (review records, observation, interview)
    • 3. Evaluate assessment results
    • 4. Develop hypothesis
    • 5. Formulate intervention plan
    • 6. Implement plan
    • 7. Evaluate effectiveness
    • ** Place emphasis on antecedents of a behavior **
  24. Curriculum Based Assessment
    Broad assessment program/process, which may include CBMs or structured observation
  25. Curriculum-Based Measurement
    • Specific forms of criterion-referenced assessments in which curriculum goals and objectives serve as the "criteria" for assessment items
    • Characteristics:
    • Based on systematic procedures for frequent collection and analysis of data
    • Examination of student performance across time to evaluate intervention effectiveness
    • System to identify students who are at-risk
    • Provides normative and statistically sound information
  26. Authentic (Ecological) Assessments
    Help determine goodness of fit between the student and the learning environment
  27. Intellectual Disabilities
    • Standard score of 70 or below
    • Origins must be prior to age 18
    • Deficits or impairments in adaptive functioning in at least 2 areas
  28. Adaptive Functioning
    • Communication
    • Self-care and home living
    • Social skills
    • Use of community resources
    • Self-direction
    • Functional academic skills
    • Employment
    • Leisure
    • Physical health issues
  29. Distinguishing Language Difference from Language Disorders
    • Disorder must be present in native and English languages
    • Testing must be conducted in strongest language (or native language)
    • Assessments must be conducted using formal and informal measures
    • Language must be assessed in a variety of contexts
    • Patterns of language usage must be described and error patterns must be determined
    • Language preference must be compared to that of other bilingual speakers 
    • ** Consider interruption of language development: SES, poor instruction, lack of exposure, attendance, etc. **
  30. Assessing ESL Students
    • The use of a standardized test with direct translation is NOT best practice; very weak if the test is not normed on the cultural group being assessed
    • Informal and non-standardized alternatives are less discriminatory
  31. Five Critical Features of Effective PBS Programs
    • 1. Establish and define clear and consistent schoolwide expectations
    • 2. Specifically teach schoolwide expectations to all students
    • 3. Acknowledge students for demonstrating the expected behaviors
    • 4. Develop clear and consistent consequences for infractions
    • 5. Use objective data to evaluate efforts
  32. Three Tier Model
    • Tier 1: Primary Prevention- universal interventions (PBS)
    • Tier 2: Strategic Interventions- targeted in scope but less intensive than tier 3 (Bully prevention program)
    • Tier 3: Targeted Level- direct contact with student (individual counseling)
  33. Ethical Principles of Counseling
    • Parental Consent: obtained prior to ongoing services; can be seen before consent if safety is an issue
    • Confidentiality: student is informed of exceptions to confidentiality
    • Goals: explicit goals should be stated and progress should be observed
  34. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    • Thoughts influence feelings and ultimately control behavior
    • Intervene on student's faulty beliefs and role play appropriate behaviors in given situations
  35. Cognitive Therapy
    • Developed by William Glasser
    • Emphasis on cognition and beliefs
    • Get student to understand and think about the connection between behavior and consequences
  36. Solution-Focused Counseling
    • Incorporates CBT principles
    • Typically very brief and focused on stated outcomes
  37. Behavioral and Behaviorism Techniques
    • Focus is on behavioral intervention
    • Behavior is shaped and maintained by consequences of the behavior
  38. Humanistic Approach
    • Behavioral change cannot occur without a strong positive rapport
    • Built upon unconditional positive regard and empathy
  39. Applied Behavior Analysis and Intervention
    • Uses systematic instruction and repeated trials to change behavior
    • Discrete Trial Instruction
    • Task analysis
  40. Behavioral Interventions
    • Emphasize decreasing the triggering events and focus on a "goodness of fit" between child and environment
    • Time out: effective with very young children, not a punishment
  41. Crisis Intervention General Considerations
    • The most effective approach to crisis-related issues is to prevent them
    • Adult supervision and visibility are most essential factors in school safety
    • Plan a communication system
    • Provide staff trainings
    • Create a crisis safety team
    • Target bullying
    • Advocate for students to take part in maintaining a safe school environment
    • Anonymous reporting systems
  42. Reactions to Crisis
    • Very young children: thumb sucking, bed wetting, separation anxiety, sleep disturbance, fears, regression in behavior, withdrawal
    • Elementary school children: fear and safety issues, aggressiveness, irritability, clinginess, nightmares, school problems, poor concentration
    • Adolescents: sleep and eat disturbances, extreme emotions, agitation, interpersonal conflicts, somatization, delinquent, poor attention
  43. Crisis Response Immediately Following an Event
    • 1. Identify youth who are high risk and provide support
    • 2. Support adults on how to handle class discussions and answer questions
    • 3. Therapeutic activities: talk about healing, reassure, provide coping skills, strengthen friendships, connect to community resources
  44. Suicide Prevention/Intervention
    • Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death among 10-19 yr olds
    • No-suicide contracts have little effectiveness and are not typically recommended
  45. Suicide Assessment and Intervention Model
    • Assessment
    • 1. Thoughts about suicide
    • 2. Past attempts
    • 3. Plan
    • 4. Method
    • 5. Surrounding supports
    • 6. Parents must be notified
    • 7. Provide referrals
    • 8. Follow-up
  46. Suicide Postvention
    • 1. Reduce the chances of anyone else committing suicide by avoiding glamorization of the deceased
    • 2. Assist staff and students with the grieving process
  47. Contagion Considerations
    • Contagion: one's actions might spread to others and promote more suicidal behavior
    • 1. Avoid sensationalism
    • 2. Avoid glorification or vilification
    • 3. Stick to facts, no excessive details
    • 4. No info over PA system
    • 5. Avoid school-wide assemblies
    • 6. Provide information simultaneously in classrooms
    • 7. Photos of victim should not be used
    • 8. Provide info to families about resources
    • 9. Provide specific safe place for questions and expression of feelings
    • 10. Emphasize normality of grief and stress reactions
    • 11. Identify students at risk for imitative response
    • 12. Do not send students from school to funerals, do not stop class for funerals, no moments of silence
    • 13. No services at school
    • 14. No permanent memorials (dedication of yearbooks, songs, sporting events, etc.)
  48. Debriefing
    Crisis technique used to relay information and a way to flag those people who may need additional mental health support
  49. Piaget's Cognitive Development Stage Theory
    • Learning is active and children construct knowledge as they explore their environment and world
    • 1. Sensorimotor (0 to 2): motor actions and senses
    • 2. Preoperational (2 to 7): Symbolic function emerges
    • 3. Concrete Operational (7 to 11): Thinking about more than one dimension of a problem situation; deeper thinking, logic
    • 4. Formal Operational (11+): Complex abstract thinking, hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  50. Erikson's Stages of Development
    • Based on the notion that humans will confront specific challenges at a given age range; the challenge impacts the positive or negative outcome
    • 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0 to 18 months): attachment to caregiver, trust
    • 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (10 months to 3): confidence in ability to explore and do things for themselves
    • 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5): simple self-control, taking initiative in play and in various tasks; imaginary play and choosing activities
    • 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 12): Sense of industry when recognized for various activities
    • 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (13 to 18): identity, sense of self, strong ego during this time (peers, role models, and social pressures are factors)
    • 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, Integrity vs. Despair
  51. Bandura's Social Learning Theory
    Based on children's ability to observe and learn vicariously
  52. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • When lower level needs are supported, then higher levels in the hierarchy can be realized
    • 1. Physiological
    • 2. Safety
    • 3. Love/Belonging
    • 4. Esteem
    • 5. Self-Actualization
  53. Freud's Psychodynamic Stages
    • Psychodynamic theory: child's developing personality consists of 3 interrelated parts that sometimes conflict with each other
    • 1. Id: operates on pleasure principle; max pleasure and satisfy needs immediately
    • 2. Ego: rational, controlling part of personality; attempts to gratify needs through appropriate and socially constructive behavior
    • 3. Superego: internalizing (accepting and absorbing) morals, values, and roles-- development of conscience
  54. Freud's Psychosexual Stages
    • Lack of success in any stage could result in the child developing the primary traits of the stage as an adult... Major contribution is emphasis on early experiences shaping later development
    • 1. Oral (0-1): eating, sucking, biting
    • 2. Anal (2-3): postpone personal gratification (potty training)
    • 3. Phallic (3-5): preoccupation with own sex anatomy and identifies differences between gender
    • 4. Latency (6-12): Sex drives stopped temporarily; become involved with peers of same gender
    • 5. Genital (12+): Sexual desires reemerge and are directed toward peers
  55. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
    • Based on the level of a child's cognitive capabilities, which influence moral reasoning and behavior
    • 1. Preconventional: desire to avoid punishment and gain rewards
    • 2. Conventional: acquire approval of others and maintain social relationships
    • 3. Postconventional: right and wrong are logical and conduct is controlled by an internalized ethical code that is independent of approval/disapproval of others
  56. ADHD
    • Dopamine and neuroepinephrine deficiency causes prefrontal lobe brain dysfunction
    • Responsive to medical treatment
  57. Conduct Disorder and ODD
    For IEP- qualifications may not include CD or ODD due to belief that disorder has a volitonal choice component
  58. Mental Retardation
    • Mild MR: SS from 55 to 69
    • Moderate MR: SS from 40-54
    • Severe: SS below 40
  59. Emotional disability
    • Impacted in various settings
    • Cannot be due to institutional factors
    • Intervention must be attempted
  60. Most common referral to SpEd
    Reading difficulties
  61. Educating ESL Students
    Provide education in BOTH languages
  62. School Readiness
    Student's biological and physiological maturation level to enter school
  63. Learned Helplessness
    • Behavior that results from the belief that one cannot control the events in the environment
    • Prone to depression, fatalistic perspectives, low self-esteem, low achievement
  64. Theory of Mind
    When a person begins to understand that other people have their own private thoughts, perspectives, and feelings
  65. Spearman's Theory of Intelligence
    • Two factor theory
    • General intelligence factor "g" 
    • "g" is overall or full-scale IQ scores
  66. Thurston's Primary Mental Abilities
    • Opposite view from Spearman's theory
    • 11 primary mental abilities
    • intelligence is not a unitary construct like "g"
  67. Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities
    • Highly regarded and widely adopted theory used to construct major cognitive abilities tests
    • Components:
    • 1. Cg: fluid intelligence, fluid reasoning-- deducing with novel materials
    • 2. Gc: crystallized ability-- application of acquired knowledge and learned skills
    • 3. Gv: visual processes
    • 4. Ga: auditory processing
    • 5. Gs: processing speed
    • 6. Gsm: short-term, immediate memory
    • 7. Glr: memory storage and retrival
  68. Das-Naglieri PASS Model
    • Model of brain function divided into 4 units (proposed by Luria) 
    • Promises to link intelligence to brain function
    • 1. Planning
    • 2. Attention
    • 3. Simultaneous processing
    • 4. Successive processing
  69. Language Development
    • Phonology: system of sounds
    • Phoneme: basic unit of language's sound; smallest unit of sound that affects meaning
    • Morpheme: smallest units of meaning (prefix suffix, root word)
    • Semantics: study of word meanings and combinations
    • Syntax: how words may combine into phrases
    • Pragmatics: set of rules that specify appropriate language for social contexts
  70. Language Acquisition Device
    • Noam Chomsky
    • Children are born with an innate mental structure that guides their acquisition of language and grammar
    • Universal features common to all languages are innate
    • Interactionist View: language is learned in the context of spoken language, but assumes that humans are biologically prepared for learning to speak
  71. Brain Areas Involved in Language
    • Broca's Area: expressive language production, grammatical processes; frontal portion of the left hemisphere
    • Wernicke's Area: receptive language, word meaning comprehension; medial temporal lobe
  72. Types of Tests, Evaluations, Assessments
    • Cognitive Abilities: used as a way to predict future learning; norm referenced
    • Formative Evaluations: used to determine strengths and weaknesses; usually evaluate academic areas where students are doing well and poorly, used to guide future instruction
    • Summative Evaluations: provide a review and summary of accomplishments to date; provided at the end of a grading period to provide a summary of student achievement
    • Achievement Tests: performance test that describes the skills a person has learned in school; concerned with mastery
    • Domain-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced: concerned with the level mastery of a defined skill set; purpose on reaching a standard performance on a specific skill
    • Norm-Referenced Tests: performance is evaluated in relation to the performance of a more general reference group rather than to the set task
  73. Types of Test Scores
    • Percentile Ranks: percentage of people surpassed by an individual; not an equal-interval measurement
    • Grade Norms and Equivalents: matched to grade groups; caution should be used with grade equivalent, poor metric
    • Age Norms and Equivalents: unequal metric; used with a high degree of caution
    • Standard Scores: psychometrically sound measures used to describe a person's position within the normal curve of human traits
  74. Statistical Terms
    • Range: difference between highest and lowest scores
    • Mode: most frequently occurring score
    • Variance: how far a set of numbers is spread out
    • Standard Deviation: measure of the spread of a set of values from the mean value; SD is used as a measure of the spread or scatter of a group of scores relative to position
    • Z-scores: mean of 0, SD of one; rarely used
    • T-scores: mean of 50, SD of 10
    • Stanines: standard nine-point scale; mean of 5; each stanine represents one half of a SD
  75. Reliability
    • Consistent and stable across time
    • Reliability Coefficient: consistency of a score, stability of a score; generally around or above .8
    • Standard Error of Measurement (SEM): estimate of error used when interpreting test scores
    • Methods:
    • -- Test-retest
    • -- Alternate/parallel forms
    • -- Split half
    • -- Internal consistency reliability: analysis of the statistics of the individual test items
    • -- Interrater reliability
  76. Validity
    • Degree to which a test actually measures what it claims it measures
    • Validity Coefficient: generally .8; the higher the better
    • Criterion-Related Validity: correlation between two measures that are designed to measure human traits; if correlation should be higher when measuring the same thing
    • -- Face and Content Validity: rational and reasonable test appearance
    • -- Convergent Validity: correlated with another test that has a similar purpose
    • -- Divergent Validity: correlating two tests that measure two different traits
    • Construct Related Reliability: refers to whether a trait or construct is being measured
    • -- Predictive Validity: valid test should have high predictive value
    • -- Discriminant Validity: valid test should be able to discriminate between students who have and do not have the measured trait
  77. Confounding Factors Related to Test Reliability and Validity
    • motivation
    • personal issues
    • language difficulties
    • environmental factors
    • values, beliefs
    • racial bias
    • SES
    • family dynamics
  78. Basic Principles of Effective Instruction
    • 1. Activate prior knowledge
    • 2. Make connections between new learning and current knowledge; make learning relevant
    • 3. Do not overload abilities when teaching new concepts
    • 4. Provide instruction within zone of proximal development
    • 5. Model desired responses; explicit expectations; exemplars of completed work
    • 6. Allow time for practice; provide corrective feedback; cognitive rest periods between new concepts
    • 7. Provide immediate feedback
    • 8. Multimodal teaching is best practice

    Acquisition--> Proficiency--> Generalization--> Adaptation
  79. Differentiated Instruction
    requires educators to respond to the individualized needs and abilities of all learners within the regular education environment
  80. Cooperative Learning
    • Vygotsky
    • Students work cooperatively to learn new concepts
    • Develop greater understanding and respect for learning differences
  81. Flexible Grouping
    Changing students within groups is best practice
  82. Student Engagement Time
    • Predictor of academic achievement
    • Defined as the amount of time that students are actively engaged in learning
  83. SQ3R
    • Survey
    • Question
    • Read
    • Recite
    • Review
  84. Factors in Academic Success/Failure
    • School Climate
    • Student Motivation
    • Educational Practices and Policies
    • Family Involvement
  85. Retention
    • Research does not support the use of grade retention
    • Achievement declines within 2 to 3 years post-retention
    • Retained students are more likely to experience significant problems such as interpersonal conflicts, disliking school, behavior problems, and lower self-esteem
  86. Tracking
    • Whole group instruction that is characterized by a set curriculum that is delivered at the same pace for all students within the classroom
    • Placement in these classrooms is based solely on child's ability level
    • Unacceptable approach for the grouping of students
  87. Zero Tolerance
    • Mandate of predetermined and typically harsh consequences for a wide degree of rule violations
    • Generally ineffective
  88. Rapport for Consultation and Collaboration
    • 1. Openness, approachability, warmth
    • 2. Sincerity and genuineness
    • 3. Trustworthiness and confidentiality
    • 4. Empathy
    • 5. Self-disclosure (sparingly)
  89. Consultee-Centered Model
    • Focus on improving and enhancing competence and skills of the consultee
    • Indirectly helps the client by building skills of consultee
    • Role of Consultant:
    • -- Identify treatments for client and teach consultee how to meet needs
    • -- Increase knowledge base or skill level of consultee
    • -- Address distorted view of the client if necessary
  90. Client-Centered Model
    • Focus on the student; directly help the student
    • Not as favored as consultee-centered
    • Interventions provided by the consultant are directed to the child and teachers student skills
    • Effective on a single-case basis, not for groups
    • Time intensive for consultant
  91. Behavioral Model
    • Solution focused and collects data to affect behavior change
    • Goal is to reduce frequency of undesirable behavior by altering the relationship between behavior and environment
    • Basic steps of model:
    • 1. Identify problem
    • 2. Implement plan
    • 3. Monitor effectiveness
    • 4. Evaluate and make changes
  92. Conjoint Behavioral Consultation
    • supports meetings with all parties
    • Family
    • Teachers
    • Staff
    • Etc
  93. Barriers to Collaboration and Consultation
    • Consultee or client resists participation
    • Client is unable to make a time commitment
    • Funding problems for community collaboration
    • Lack of leadership
    • Communication difficulties
    • Unclear goals 
    • Adversarial relationships with community experts
Card Set
Praxis II
School Psychology Praxis 2