1. what is the purpose of radiation monitoring
    ensures that exposure levels are kept below the annual effective dose limit
  2. what is the amount of radiation workers are likely to risk recieving of the annual effective dose limit
    10% or more
  3. what are personnel dosimeters
    • measure quantity of radiation exposure over time
    • records exposure to wear it is worn
  4. what procedures are susceptible to the most radiation
    special procedures cardiac catheterization angiograms etc..
  5. dosimeters at the collar level serve what purpose
    provide an approx. dose equivalent to the thyroid and lens of the eye
  6. what is the lead equivalency of a lead apron
  7. where is the dosimeter during fluoro cases
    what if you have only one
    • one outside the collar of the leap apron and the other is under the apron at the waist
    • if you have one wear it at the collar because the eye head and neck recieve 10-20x more exposure than the trunk
  8. what are extremity dosimeters
    • they are tld badges that are worn on the wrists when the hands are in the primary beam
    • measures exposure to hands
  9. how are monitoring records investigate and read radiation
    they read a chart that exceeds a "trigger level"
  10. what dosimeter uses low atomic number to filter low energy x gamma and beta radiation
    film badge plastic holder
  11. the metal filters in film badges compose of what two metals
    copper or aluminum
  12. Penetrating radiation casts what in metal filter film badges
    soft radiation casts _____ on processed films
    how are the radiation doses calculated
    • faint shadows
    • more pronounces
    • deep or shallow
  13. the direction of radiation in metal filter film badges can be estimated by ______
    what can this estimate determine about the exposure
    • filter shadows
    • if it was caused by scatter = fuzzy image
    • or primary beam - sharp image
  14. exposure to scatter can be indicated by ____
    poor work habits
  15. film badges are sensitive to how much radiation
    10mrem and higher
  16. film badges are read by what device
  17. what are densitometers
    devices that measure radiation exposure in film badges of workers that reads the density of the film in the badge
  18. osl dosimeters are sensitive to how much radiation
  19. List the main advantages and disadvantages of film badges
    advantages: cheap reliable can distinguish between types of radiation and energies

    disadvantages: only lasts a month, and are extremely sensitive to extreme temperature and humidity
  20. what dosimeters are measured in mRem
    osl tld's film badges
  21. how are osl dosimeters read
    optically stimulated luminosity occurs when the dosimeter is struck by a laser light and produces an amount of light proportional to radiation recieved
  22. what is an advantage to using pocket dosimeters
    radiation dose can be read very quickly
  23. tld osl and film badges use sensing material to radiation
    • tld uses lithium fluoride
    • osl = aluminum dioxide
    • film badges = film
  24. pocket dosimeters measure radiation in what unit
    and what is the range of sensitivity of radiation can it read
    • mR (milliroentgen)
    • 0-200 mR
  25. what dosimeter has 2 electrodes and require a special charging unit
    what are the two types of this dosimeter
    • pocket dosimeters
    • self reading and non self reading
  26. list the main pros and cons to using a pocket dosimeter
    • pro: immediate readings, good for high exposure areas like when workers go back to nuclear fallout areas
    • cons: extremely expensive, doesnt provide a permanent record and must be read daily
  27. TLD badges need what to excite the lithium fluoride crystals to read the amount of radiation
    the crystals need to be heated
  28. what level of radiation can tld badges read
  29. what are pros and cons to tld badges
    • pros: more accurate than film badge can be worn for 3 months crystals can be reused
    • cons: can only read once, calibrated dosimeters must be used
  30. what are radiation survey instruments
    what do they respond to
    • they monitor radiation and indicate the presence or absence of radiation
    • respond to charged particles produced when radiation interacts with gas in detector
  31. what is a cutie pie
    what intensities can it detect
    an ionization chamber instrument that measures rate meter and cumulative exposure to radiation 1mR-several thousand
  32. what are the different things cutie pies can measure
    • diagnostic equipment
    • fluoro scatter
    • embedded radiation therapy materials
    • exposure rates of isotopes storage areas
    • exposure outside of protective barriers
  33. pros and cons to using cutie pie
    where are they used mainly
    • pros: can detect exposure over a wide range of are within a few seconds
    • cons: w/o warmup they can be inaccurate
    • not used in diagnostic radiology commonly used in radiation therapy and they are delicate
  34. when are proportional counters mainly used and not used
    • mainly used in the laboratory setting for alpha and beta radiation
    • not used in diagnostic radiology
  35. what is the primary instrument to monitor radiation in nuclear medicine
    geiger mueller detector
  36. how does a geiger mueller instruement aware the user of radiation presence
    what is the con of this machine
    • makes an audible sound
    • not good at detecting precise measurements can jam in high intensity areas
  37. what three detectors measure radiation in mR
    cutie pie geiger mueller instruments pocket doismeters all measure radiation in air
  38. what are calibration instruments
    what does it do
    • they are ionization chambers specifically designed for calibration connected to an electrometer
    • they measure electrical currents with precision and accuracy
  39. what is the limit of error for reproducibility and linearity
    what is the difference btween the two
    • repro. = 5% error
    • linearity = 10% error
    • repr. is the output of energy
    • linearity = is the ability to get same density with diff tech factors
  40. list all the following things that ionization chambers can measure
    • xray out put (mR/mAs)
    • reproducibility
    • linearity
    • timer accuracy
    • half value layer
    • entrance exposure in fluoroscopy
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