Chapter 2 TQM

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  1. What are ISO Family Standards
    Set of standards and guidelines for Quality Management Systems adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Provide a comprehensive framework for designing and maintaining a quality management system and help organizations establish a process orientation and the discipline to document and control key processes. Focus on developing, documenting, and implementing procedures to ensure consistency of operations and performance in production and service delivery processes, with the aim of continual improvement, and supported by fundamental principles of total quality.
  2. What are internal audits and what do they focus on?
    Focus on identifying whether documented procedures are being followed and are effective, and reporting the issues to management for corrective action.

    Process records, Training records, Complaints, Corrective actions, Previous audit reports
  3. What is a quality manual and what records does it hold?
    A permanent reference for implementing and maintaining the system.

    inspection reports, test data, audit reports, calibration data
  4. What is the Organizational Structure of QMS
    Responsibilities, Methods of communication, Maintenance of essential records and documentation, Procedures for reviewing performance, Resources:
  5. What is Quality Policy
    A formal document that demonstrates a commitment to achieving high quality and meeting customer expectations.
  6. What are the objectives of QMS
    Higher product conformity and less variation. Fewer defects, waste, rework, and human error. Improved productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness.
  7. Define QMS
    a mechanism for managing and continuously improving core processes to "achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization.”
  8. What are lessons learned from Deming's red bead Experiment
    Quality is made at the top. Rigid procedures are not enough. People are not always the main source of variability. Numerical goals are often meaningless. Inspection is expensive and does not improve quality.
  9. What are two fundamental Management Mistakes
    Treating as a special cause any fault,complaint, mistake, breakdown, accident or shortage when it actually is due to common causes 2. Attributing to common causes any fault,complaint, mistake, breakdown, accident orshortage when it actually is due to a specialcause
  10. What are types of variation
    Uncontrollable variation (commoncauses) are a natural part of a process, Special (assignable) causes ofvariation can be recognized andcontrolled, Failure to understand thesedifferences can increase variation in asystem
  11. What are problems created by variation
    Variation increases unpredictability. Variation reduces capacity utilization. Variation contributes to a “bullwhip” effect. Variation makes it difficult to find root causes. Variation makes it difficult to detect potential problems early.
  12. What is Statistical Thinking
    All work occurs in a system of interconnected processes, Variation exists in all processes, Understanding and reducing variation are the keys to success
  13. What are TQ Techniques
    Statistical methods, Visual aids for problem solving, such as flowcharts, Techniques specific to quality assurance activities, such as control charts, measurement systems analysis, reliability models, and so on.
  14. What are Mutually beneficial supplier relationships practices
    Establishing relationships that balance short‐term gains with long‐term considerations. Pooling of expertise and resources with partners. Identifying and selecting key suppliers. Clear and open communication. Sharing information and future plans. Establishing joint development and improvement activities. Inspiring, encouraging, and recognizing improvements and achievements by suppliers.
  15. What is a Factual Approach to Decision Making Practices
    Ensuring that data and information are sufficiently accurate and reliable. Making data accessible to those who need it. Analyzing data and information using valid methods. Making decisions and taking action based on factual analysis, balanced with experience and intuition.
  16. What are continual Improvement Practicies
    Employing a consistent organization‐wide approach to continual improvement of the organization’s performance. Providing people with training in the methods and tools of continual improvement. Making continual improvement of products, processes,and systems an objective for every individual in the organization. Establishing goals to guide, and measures to track,continual improvement. Recognizing and acknowledging improvements.
  17. What are process approach practices of ISO
    Systematically defining the activities necessary to obtain a desired result. Establishing clear responsibility and accountability form managing key activities. Analyzing and measuring of the capability of key activities. Identifying the interfaces of key activities within and between the functions of the organization. Focusing on the factors such as resources, methods, and materials that will improve key activities of the organization. Evaluating risks, consequences, and impacts of activities on customers, suppliers, and other interested parties.
  18. What are the involvement of People practices in ISO
    People understanding the importance of their contribution and role in the organization. People identifying constraints to their performance. People accepting ownership of problems and their responsibility for solving them. People evaluating their performance against their personal goals and objectives. People actively seeking opportunities to enhance their competence, knowledge, and experience. People freely sharing knowledge and experience. People openly discussing problems and issues.
  19. What are Leadership Practices in ISO
    Considering the needs of all interested parties including customers, owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole. Establishing a clear vision of the organization’s future. Setting challenging goals and targets. Creating and sustaining shared values, fairness and ethical role models at all levels of the organization.Establishing trust and eliminating fear. Providing people with the required resources, training and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability. Inspiring, encouraging, and recognizing people’s contributions.
  20. What are Customer focus practices of ISO
    Researching and understanding customer needs and expectations. Ensuring that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations. Communicating customer needs and expectations throughout the organization. Measuring customer satisfaction and acting on the results. Systematically managing customer relationships. Ensuring a balanced approach between satisfying customers and other interested parties (such as owners,employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities and society as a whole).
  21. What are ISO Quality Management Principles
    Customer Focus, Leadership, Involvement of People, Process Approach, System Approach to Management, Continual Improvement, Factual Approach to Decision Making, Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships
  22. What are the 11 steps to Kaoru Philosophy
    1. Quality begins with education and ends witheducation.2. The first step in quality is to know therequirements of the customer.3. The ideal state of quality control occurs wheninspection is no longer necessary.4. Remove the root causes, not the symptoms.5. Quality control is the responsibility of allworkers and all divisions.6. Do not confuse the means with the objectives.7. Put quality first and set your sights on long term profits.8. Marketing is the entrance and exit of quality.9. Top management must not show anger whenfacts are presented by subordinates.10. Ninety-five percent of problems in a companycan be solved with simple tools for analysis andproblem solving.11. Data without dispersion information (i.e.,variability) are false data.
  23. What did Kaoru Ishikawa do for quality
    Instrumental in developing Japanese quality strategy, Influenced participative approaches involving all workers, Advocated the use of simple visual tools and statistical techniques, developed cause and effect diagram, furthered the concept of CWQC
  24. Define External Failure of Quality Cost
    Costs incurred after poor‐quality products reach the customer, Complaint adjustment, Returned product/material, Warranty charges, Liability costs
  25. What is internal failure in Quality Cost
    Costs of unsatisfactory quality found before the delivery of a product to the customer, Scrap, Rework, Retest, Failure analysis, Downtime, Yield losses, Downgrading/off‐specing
  26. Define Apprasial of Quality Cost
    Associated with efforts to ensure conformance to requirements, generally through measurement and analysis of data to detect nonconformances, Inspection and test of incoming material, Product inspection and test, Materials and services consumed, Maintaining accuracy of test equipment
  27. What are ways to prevent Quality costs
    Investments made to keep nonconforming products from occurring and reaching the customer, Quality planning and engineering, New products review, Product/process design, Process control, Burn‐in, Training, Quality data acquisition and analysis
  28. What are the stages is Quality cost Classification
    Prevention, Appraisal, Internal Failure, External Failure
  29. Define Cost of Quality COQ?
    the cost of avoiding poorquality, or costs incurred as a result of poorquality
  30. What 3 contributions is Feignbaum known for
    International promotion of the quality ethic, Development of the concept of Total Quality Control, Development of the quality cost classification/application
  31. What are Feigenbaums 3 steps to quality
    Quality leadership, Modern Quality Technology, Organizational Commitment
  32. What is Feigenbaums Philosophy
    An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction.
  33. What are Crosby's Absolutes of Quality management
    Quality means conformance to requirements. Problems are functional in nature, There is no optimum level of defects, Cost of quality is the only useful measurement, Zero defects is the only performance standard
  34. What is Crosby Philosophy
    Quality is free
  35. What is Jurans Breakthrough Sequence
    Proof of the Need, Project Identification, Organization for Breakthrough, Diagnostic Journey, Remedial Journey, Holding the Gains
  36. What is juarns point on achieving the mission of Quality
    By following a spiral of progress, organizations benefit form the contributions from cross functional areas to gain quality related knowledge and understanding of functional interdependencies.
  37. What is Jurans Quality Planning Road Map
    1. Identify the customers.2. Determine the needs of customers.3. Translate those needs into business language.4. Develop a product that can respond to those needs.5. Optimize the product features so as to meet business needs and customer needs.6. Develop a process which is able to produce the product.7. Optimize the process.8. Prove that the process can produce the product.9. Transfer the process to Operations and Continuous Improvement Programs.
  38. What is Jurans Quality Trilogy
    Quality planning, Quality control, Quality improvement
  39. What is the Juran Philosophy
    Juran proposed a simple definition of quality:“fitness for use.” This definition of quality suggests that it should be viewed from both external and internal perspectives; that is, quality is related to “(1) product performance that results in customer satisfaction; (2) freedom from product deficiencies, which avoids customer dissatisfaction.”
  40. Define Psychology in Demmins profound knowledge?
    People are motivated intrinsically and extrinsically; intrinsic motivation is the most powerful, Fear is demotivating, Managers should develop pride and joy in work
  41. Define Theory of Knowledge
    Knowledge is not possible without theory, Experience alone does not establish a theory, it only describes, Theory shows cause‐and‐effect relationships that can be used for prediction
  42. Define Variation in demings progound knowledge
    Many sources of uncontrollable variation exist in any process, Excessive variation results in product failures, unhappy customers, and unnecessary costs, Statistical methods can be used to identify and quantify variation to helpunderstand it and lead to improvements
  43. Define System
    The aim of any system should be for all stakeholders—stockholders, employees,customers, community, and the environment—to benefit over the long term.
  44. Define System in demmings profound knowledge
    Most organizational processes arecross‐functional, Parts of a system must work together, Every system must have a purpose,Management must optimize thesystem as a whole
  45. What is demings system of profound knowledge
    Appreciation for a system, Understanding variation, Theory of knowledge, Psychology
  46. What are Demings Deadly Diseases
    1. Lack of constancy of purpose to plan product and service that will have a market and keep the company in business, and provide jobs.2. Emphasis on short-term profits: short-termthinking (just the opposite from constancy ofpurpose to stay in business), fed by fear ofunfriendly takeover, and by push from bankersand owners for dividends.3. Evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual review. 4. Mobility of management; job hopping.5. Management by use only of visible figures, withlittle or no consideration of figures that areunknown or unknowable.6. Excessive medical costs.7. Excessive costs of liability, swelled by lawyers that work on contingency fees.
  47. What are demings 14 points
    1. Create and publish a company missionstatement and commit to it.2. Learn the new philosophy.3. Understand the purpose of inspection.4. End business practices driven by price alone.5. Constantly improve system of productionand service.6. Institute training.7. Teach and institute leadership.8. Drive out fear and create trust.9. Optimize team and individual efforts.10. Eliminate exhortations for work force.11. Eliminate numerical quotas and M.B.O.Focus on improvement.12. Remove barriers that rob people of prideof workmanship.13. Encourage education and self-improvement.14. Take action to accomplish the transformation.
  48. What does PDCA stand for
    Plan Do Check Act
  49. What is the deming chain reaction from the top?
    Improve quality, Cost Decrease, Productivity improves, Increase Market Share with better quality and lower prices, Stay in business, Providejobs
  50. What is the Deming Philosophy
    The Deming philosophy focuses on continual improvements in product and service quality by reducing uncertainty and variability in design,manufacturing, and service processes, driven by the leadership of top management.
  51. Who were the leaders in the Quality Revolution
    W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M. Juran, Philip B. Crosby, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa
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Chapter 2 TQM
chapter 2
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