Where are the hair cells located?
Organ of Corti
What parts of the ear are affected: conductive hearing loss
outer or middle ear
What parts of the ear are affected: sensorineural hearing loss
What parts of the ear are affected: central auditory processing disorder
brainstem, figers to auditory areas of the brain, auditory cortex
What divisions of the ear are fluid-filled?
- scalia vestibuli
- scalia tympani
What is the vestibular system responsible
incoming sound signals create pressure wave in the perilymph
Know what type of information is recorded on
an audiogram versus a tympanogram.
- The audiogram is a graph showing the results of the pure-tone hearing tests. It illustrates the type, degree, and configuration of hearing loss.
- Tympanic membrane is the fancy name for eardrum, so when a doctor wants
- to find out how your eardrum is working, he or she may get a
- tympanogram. In this test, a doctor uses a special machine that is small
- enough to be inserted into you ear. It makes a quiet noise that should get your eardrum moving. The result of this test is known as a tympanogram.
What is cued speech?
manual cues of the consonant or vowel sounds being spoken to assist person who is deaf to comprehend speech
What type of hearing loss is caused by otitis
Anatomy of outer ear
- externam auditory meatus (ear canal)
Anatomy of middle ear
- tympanic membrane/ ear drum
- ossicular chain/ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)
- eustachian tube (auditory tube)
Anatomy of the inner ear
- oval window
- cochlea (and Organ of Corti)
- Acoustic Nerve/ Auditory Nerve
- Cranial VIII
What is otosclerosis?
hardening of the middle ear bones of plaque buildup-- typical of stapes
What is presbycusis?
age-related hearing loss
What is otitis media?
middle ear infection
Where is the Organ of Corti located?
cochlea, more specifically scalia media
Know the parts of a hearing aid versus parts
of a cochlear implant.
- hearing aid: battery, microphone, amplifier, receiver
- cochlear implant: transmitter, microphone, receiver/stimulator
- snail shaped
- completes 2 3/4 spiral turns
- ends at the apex- helicotrema center @ end of spiral turns
- divides the cochlea into 3 chambers
- scalia vestibuli: incoming sound signal causes pressure wave in the perilymph
- scalia media: sound signal is sent to the brain (electrical)
- scalia tympani: outgoing sound signal causes pressure wave in perilymph
Be familiar with the different levels of
hearing loss. (i.e. mild, moderate, moderately severe, severe, profound)
- mild: 15-40 db
- miderate: 41-55 db
- moderately severe: 56-70 db
- severe: 71-90 db
- considered deaf at loss exceeding 75 db
Know the difference between frequency and
intensity and how they relate to sound.
- Frequency: hz, cycles per second, how fast the molecules are moving, pitch
- Intensity: amplitude, how far the molecules are displaced, decibels
Be familiar with the path of sound as it
travels from the outer ear to the brain.
Acoustic energy gathered by the auricle (pinna) channeled into the external auditory meatus, strikes and vibrates the tympanic membrane, vibrates the 3 bones, across the oval window, travels into the scalia vestibuli. Hydraulic energy (perilymph) compresses Reissner's membrane, disturbs hair cells in Organ of Corti in scalia media. Electrical signal is sent on to the brain. Then sound that is not transmitted to the brain compresses basilar membrane, scalia tympani, middle ear
Hearing Level Threshold: at intensity level at which a tone is faintly heard at least 50% of the time presented
Conducted to find out how well a person understands speech & discriminates between speech sounds. SRT= the lowest level at which the person cannot understand 50% of the words presented
used to assist in the prescription of hearing disorders, tympanic membrane
- Auditory brain stem evoked response
- electrical activity in C VIII, the brainstem, and cortical ares of the brain, can Dx
- delineates the need for audiological evaluation
- 20 of 25 db out 500, 1k, 2k, 3k, 4k
- motor cortex (primary motor area)
- Broca's area (left side only)
- planning & producing speech
visual cortex- primary visual area
- contains sensory areas (touch & pressure)
- proprioception (position of body)
- shaped like a thumb
- auditory cortex or primary auditory area
- receives & analyzes auditory stimuli
- Wernicke's area: concerned w/ language comprehension
- tail of the cortex
- medulla oblongata (medulla)
- controls breathing, heartrate, and other automatic functions of the body
regulates and coordinates movement of the body including speech
- language disorder associated with acquired brain damage
- affects all aspects of language
- not a speech disorder
- damage to left hemisphere, Broca's area and/or Wernicke's Area
trouble naming, finding words
- absence of movement:
- cause often unknown
- lesion in central motor programming area: Broca's area, left frontal lobe
a group of disorders due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of the speech muscles
difficulty with reading
difficulty with numbers
visual and spacial difficulty (facial and geographic orientation) emotional expression, attention, difficulty understanding abstract meanings of words, and excessive and impulsive talking
Know the difference between the different
types of paraphasias: phonemic, verbal/semantic and neologism
- phonemic: sounds similar to intended word. I drove my tar today
- verbal/semantic: words have similar meaning or are from same semantic class. My son is 16 (daughter)
- neologism: self created word
What is the prevalence of aphasia? How many
individuals have a stroke per year?
- approx: 1 million people have aphasia
- 700,000 STROKES per year
- 80,000 result in APHASIA
Know the 3 different types of CVAs that can
lead to a stroke (embolism, thrombosis, aneurysm)
- embolism: blockage, blood clot
- thrombosis: blood clot fills artery
- aneurysm: sack-lik buldge on wall of a weakened artery that ruptured
What is fluent aphasia and how is it
different than non-fluent aphasia?
Know the difference between Wernicke’s and Broca’s aphasia.
What disorders are considered motor speech
Know the difference between speech/verbal,
oral and limb apraxia.
Know what dysarthria is and what can cause