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  1. catalyst
    a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
  2. Cell Theory has two main parts.
    1. Cells are the basic unit of life. All living oranisms are composed of at least one cell; and the chemical reactions needed for life (e.g. cellular respiration) happen inside these cells.

    2. Cells come from other cells. New cells are made when one cell copies its DNA and divides, distributing an identical copy of the DNA to each new cell.
  3. Whay aren't there giant cells?
    Cell size is limited by the constraints of the ratio fo the surface area to volume of the cell. This limits the diffusion of essential molecules. Bigger cells need more surface area to help it move material into and out of the cell. A Cells volume grows relative to the Cell Surface Area.
  4. Animal Cell: What is the Nucleus?
    The Nucleus is the control center of the cell, processing inputs from the cytoplasm, storing and retrieving information, and carrying out instructions contained within the genetic material in the nucleus. It is bound by a double-membrane called the nuclear envelope.
  5. Animal Cell: What is the Nucleoulus?
    The dense center of the nucleus is the nucleolus, which synthesizes ribosomal RNA.
  6. What is RNA?
    Ribonucleic Acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
  7. A.S - What is Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive network of membrane-enclosed compartments that connect directly to the nuclear envelope. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) appears rough becuase it is studded with ribosomes. The rough ER is the site of secretory protien synthesis, and is also a source of membrane phospholipids.
  8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive network of membrane-enclosed compartments that connect directly to the nuclear envelope. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not contain ribosomes. It is primarily involved in lipid synthesis and in breaking down toxic substances in the cell, such as alcohol. The smooth ER also stores calcium.
  9. Mitochondria
    Mitochondria are the energy powerhouses of the cell. These organelles synthesize ATP, the cell's main energy source, through cellular respiration.
  10. Cellular Respiration
    Cellular respiration is a metabolic process that captures the chemical energy from foods in the form of ATP. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria and consists of three stages. These stages are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport.
  11. Ribosome
    Ribosomes are the protien-producing factories of the cell. They are located in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  12. Plasma membrane
    is the outer barrier of the cell and is composed of a phospholipid bilayer that contains protiens and cholesterol. It regulates what can enter and exit the cell.
  13. Golgi apparatus
    is the 'shipping and receiving' center of the cell's endomembrane system. This organelle modifies, stores, and exports substances from the cell.
  14. Peroxisome
    Peroxisomes contain enzymes that break down molecules by removing hydrogen and transferring the hydrogen to oxygen molecules to create hydrogen peroxide. This reaction can serve many purposes including detoxifying substances such as metabolic waste or ingested toxins including alcohol and drugs.
  15. Food Vacuole
    is a vesicle insdie the cytoplasm of the cell which contains an engulfed food item. It will bind with the lysosome to be digested.
  16. Lysosome
    Lysosomes are vesicles containing powerful enzymes that digest food items engulfed by the cell.
  17. Centrosome
    The centrosome is the microbubule organizing center of the cell and functions primarily in animal cell division.
  18. Centriole
    Centrioles are within the centrosome. They help organize the mitotic spindle and function in cytokinesis in some animals
  19. Cell Wall (Only in Plants)
    The cell wall is a strong, rigid structure outside of the plasma membrane that provides support, protection and structure to the cell. It is made of cellulose.
  20. Central vacuole/tonoplast (Plants only)
    are membrane-bound organelles used to store substances within the cell. The tonoplast or central vacuole of plants cells retains water to give the plant cell rigidity and support. Vacuoles also serve as storage sites for materials used by the cell, such as some pigments, as well as for toxic substances.
  21. Chloroplast (plants only)
    Chloroplasts perform photosynthesis to build carbohydrates using CO2, water, and the energy from sunlight.
  22. Plasmodesmata
    Plasmodesmata are gaps in the cell walls of adjacent plant cells that allow cell-to-cell communication to occur.
  23. Organelles
    Organelles are tiny structures in the cell that perform specialise functions. Organelles have a membrane that surrounds them and some of their functions are: cell food breakdown, waste transportation and storage. There are various organelles in the cell such; as nucleus, mitochondria and Golgi bodies.
  24. How are things measure in Cell Biology and Micro Biology?
    Cell Biology = micrometres (one thousandth of a millimetre 10 to the power of -6 m)

    Molecular Biology = nanometres (one thousandth of a micrometre 10 to the power of -9)
  25. Instruments used to study cells and cell structure
    Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
  26. What are the 'Four Characteristics' of every living cell?
    • 1. Plasma Membrane
    • 2. Chromosomes (carry genes)
    • 3. Semifluid substance (called Cytosol)
    • 4. Ribosomes (makes protiens)
  27. What are the 'three fundamental Domains of Life' or 'Biological Classification'?
    • Prokaryotes (microbes)
    • 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Archaea

    • Eukaryotes
    • 3. Eukarya
    • - Plantae
    • - Animalia
    • - Fungi
    • - Protists
  28. Eukaryotes
    type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.

    Generally 10 - 100 um large
  29. Prokaryotes (microbes)
    a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and lacking membrane-enclosed organelles.

    Generally <5um small
  30. Koch's Postulates
    The discovery of infectious diseases. Process of contaminating host with disease, then once host is dead, recover the disease from host (isolation).
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