1. when doing an ap knee the CR is parallel to wat structure and CR is where for an ap and oblique position of the knee
    • parallel to the tibial plateaus (articular facets)
    • 1/2 inch distal to apex of patella
  2. On a lateral position of the patella what side is the CR entering and what degree is the leg flexed
    where is the CR
    • mediolateral
    • 5-10 degree
    • CR perpendicular to mid femoropatellar joint
  3. what is the routine position for the patella
    where is the CR
    • pa patella lateral and tangential(sunrise)
    • CR is perpendicular to mid patella area (popliteal crease)
  4. On a mediolateral position of the knee the Cr is angle how many degrees
    5-7 degrees cephalad
  5. On ap knee how much angulation do we need on the tube of our average sized patient 19-24cm
    3-5degrees cephalad
  6. in order to get a true ap of the knee we need to ensure what the leg is rotated how many degrees internally
    how can we use to stabilize the foot in a true ap
    • 3-5 degrees
    • sand bags
  7. what is the minimum kv for a knee in bucky
    non grid?
    • 70
    • 65
  8. to ensure a true ap of the knee what structure must be parallel to the IR
    interepicondylar line
  9. where is CR for most knee projections
    how much rotation is need of obliques of the knee
    where is the CR for oblique knee
    • .5 in distal to apex of patella
    • 45 degree lateral or internal rotation
    • CR is the same
  10. how do we determine a true lateral of the knee what structures are superimposed and which is perpendicular to the IR
    femoral epicondyles directly superimposed and patella is perpendicular to IR
  11. how much flexion of the knee do we need for a lateral position of the knee
    where is the CR and angulation of tube for a lateral knee
    • 20-30 degrees
    • 1 inch distal to medial epicondyle
    • 5-7 degrees cephalad
  12. in the oblique position of the knee where is the CR and what structure is 45 degrees to the plane of the IR
    • CR is midpoint of the knee at a level 1/2 in distal to apex
    • interepicondylar line
  13. what routine positions for knee
    ap oblique (medial and lateral rotation) lateral
  14. In the camp coventry position pa how much flexion is of the lower leg (tib and fib)
    where is the CR and cr angle
    this is to view what structure
    • 40-50 degrees
    • CR is perpendicular to lower leg and centered at knee joint or popliteal crease 40 deg caudad angle
    • intercondylar fossa
  15. The hombalad method is for what structure and the patient must lean how many degrees on all four's forward
    where is the CR
    • intercondylar fossa
    • 20-30 degrees
    • CR to popliteal crease and perpendicular to IR and lower leg
  16. what is the angle of the leg for doing a prone camp coventry tunnel view
    40-50 degrees caudal angle of the lower leg
  17. what is the berclere method used to best visualize
    what is the flexion of the knee of this method
    where is the IR
    what is the angle of the CR and where is it
    • the intercondypar fossa
    • 40-45 degrees
    • placed firmly against posterior thigh and leg
    • CR angled 40-45 degrees, perpendicular to lower leg CR set at 1/2 distal to apex of patella
  18. when the patient leans 20-30 degress forward for a projection of the intercondylar fossa's using the camp coventry or the hombalad method, what is the degree of flexion of the knee
    60-70 degree flexion is resulted from patient leaning forward
  19. what are the three projections used for a tunnel view of the knee (intercondylar fossa)
    • camp coventry
    • hombalad (all fours's)
    • berclere method
  20. what is the difference between the femrotibial joint joint and the patellofemoral joint
    • femorotibial joint is the articulation of the epicondyles of femur and the tibial plateaus
    • patellofemoral joint is only seen on the sunrise and is space between the apex of patella
  21. which condyle of the femur is longer medial or lateral and which on the lower leg
    • medial condyle is longer on condyles of the femur
    • on the lower leg the lateral melleolus is longer than the medial
  22. what is the slight difference of the medial and lateral sides of the distal femur
    the medial side has the adductor tubercle the lateral side of femur does not
  23. what are the three exams done of the tangential or sunrise/skyline projections of the patella
    • inferosuperior projection
    • Hughston method
    • Settegast method
  24. where is the CR for settegast projection (prone method) of the patella
    what is the position of the knee
    what is the position of the patient supine or prone
    • CR is femorpatellar joint
    • knee is flexed 90 degrees
    • prone
  25. in the hughston method for a sunrise view of the patella is patient prone or supine
    what is the degree of the knee and angle of the xray tube
    • prone
    • 55 degrees
    • 15 to 20 degrees if the long axis of lower leg
  26. what is the CR for pa patella
    how do we ensure a true pa patella (what degree of rotation is needed if not in true lateral)
    • CR midpatella area perpendicular to IR
    • make sure interepicondylar line is parallel to plane of IR
    • 5 degree rotation internally
  27. what is the degree of knee flexion in a merchant bilateral method
    what is the cr angle
    • 40 degree
    • 30 degrees
  28. which ligments permit add and abduction of the knee
    which of the ligaments permit anterior to posterior movements
    • the collateral ligaments LCL and MCL
    • the cruciate ligaments ACL and PCL
  29. where is the CR for a pa patella
    how do we ensure a true pa
    • CR perp to IR and midpoint to mid patella area at popliteal crease
    • rotate leg 5 deg internally so interepicondylar line is parallel to plane of IR
  30. what proejctions of the knee are good to view the intercondylar fosss
    • pa axial camp coventry and hombalad methods with variations
    • and ap axial berclere method
  31. where is the CR and angulation for setteghast variation projection
    what is the flexion of the knee
    what position is the pt in
    • CR is tangential to femoropatellar joint (15-20 deg from lower leg)
    • minimum 90 deg flexion of knee
    • patient is sitting upright
  32. where is cr for hobbs modified superoinferior tangential method
    position of pt?
    where is IR
    • CR perp to femoropatellar joint including both joints of both knees
    • seated on a chair with knees flexed
    • IR below the knees at foot level
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