Motivation and Stuff

  1. Motivation
    a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
  2. Drive Reduction Theory
    the idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to fulfill that need
  3. Homeostasis
    • a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
    • the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
  4. Lateral Hypothalamus
    brings on hunger
  5. Ventromedial Hypothalamus
    depresses hunger
  6. Ghrelin
    hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach
  7. Leptin
    acts to diminish the rewarding pleasure of food
  8. Set Point
    • the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set
    • when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
  9. Basal Metabolic Rate
    the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
  10. Sexual Response Cycle
    the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson
  11. Sexual Response Cycle Stages
    • Excitement Phase
    • Plateau Phase
    • Orgasm
    • Resolution Phase
  12. Refractory Period
    a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
  13. Sexual Disorder
    a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
  14. Estrogens
    • sex hormones secreted in greater amounts by females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics
    • estrogen levels peak during ovulation in non-human female mammals, promoting sexual receptivity
  15. Testosterone
    • the most important of male sex hormones
    • Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
  16. Higher Rate of Teen Pregnancy in US due to
    • Ignorance
    • Minimal communication about birth control
    • Guilt related to sexual activity
    • Alcohol use
    • Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
  17. Factors leading to Sexual Restraint in Teens
    • high intelligence
    • religious engagement
    • father prescence
    • Participation in service learning programs
  18. 4 Main Classifications of Orientation
    • Heterosexuality
    • Homosexuality
    • Bisexuality
    • Asexuality
  19. Transgender
    do not identify with assigned gender
  20. Pansexuality
    attracted to everyone
  21. Polysexuality
    can be attracted to both genders, but only some transgender types
  22. Job
    an unfulfilling but necessary way to make money
  23. Career
    an opportunity to advance from one position to a better one
  24. Calling
    a fulfilling and socially useful activity
  25. Flow
    a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
  26. Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
  27. Personnel Psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology hat focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
  28. Organizational Psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences onworker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
  29. Factors of Interviewer Illusion
    • interviews disclose the interviewee's good intentions, which are less revealing than habitual behaviors
    • Interviewers more often follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected and lost track of
    • Interviewers presume that people are what they seem in the interview situation
    • Interviewers' preconceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewee's responses
  30. Structured Interviews
    interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
  31. Achievement Motivation
    a desire for significant accomplishment, for master of things, people, or ideas, for rapidly attaining a high standard
  32. Task Leadership
    goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
  33. Social Leadership
    group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
  34. Ostracism
    social exclusion
  35. Levels of Hierarchy of Needs (lowest to highest)
    • Physiological Needs
    • Safety Needs
    • Belongingness and Love Needs
    • Esteem Needs
    • Self-Actualization Needs
    • Self-Transcendence Needs
Card Set
Motivation and Stuff