Chapter 18

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  1. What is immunization
    • artificially stimulating active immunity by exposing the body to weakened or less toxic protein associated with disease
  2. Active immunity
    my body does the work
  3. natural active immunity
    exposed to disease, have antibodies
  4. artificial active immunity
  5. passive immunity
    a gift
  6. natural passive immunity
    mom through placenta or breast milk
  7. artificial passive immunity
    give antibodies (immunoglobulins)
  8. Common adverse reactions to all immunizations
    • flu like (from stimulation of immune system response), pain at injection site, as well as redness and edema.
  9. Contraindications for immunizations
    • 1. immune deficiency 
    • 2. pregnancy 
    • 3. allergy to an ingredient 
    • 4. immunoglobulin in the last three months
    • 5. received blood in the last three months
    • 6. High fever, or severe reaction from previous immunization
  10. Gardasil
    • 3 IM injections given at 0, 2, 6 month intervals in girls age 9-26 for prevention of HPV – 4 types associated with veneral warts and cervical cancer (90% of warts, and 70% of cervical cancers).  Recently approved for use in males.   
  11. Roto-Teq-  
    • 3 oral doses, completed before age of 32 weeks.  To prevent rotavirus- leading cause of diarrhea and hospitalization in US for infants and toddlers (600,000 hospitalizations).  
  12. Zostavax
    • live attenuated varicella zoster vaccine for prevention of herpes zoster in persons 60 and older.  Recently age has decreased to those over 50. There is an increased risk of contraction of the illness or in passing the illness to someone else when using a live vaccine.   This is not the same vaccine as the varicella vaccine.  They cannot be substituted for one another.  
  13. Influenza vaccine
    • available as inactivated and live attenuated
    • Injectable (inactivated)- use with any group older than 6 months, pregnant during flu season, adults and children with chronic illness, health care workers, patients on long term aspirin therapy

    Live attenuated (FLU- MIST)
    • This flu vaccine is for use in ages 5-49 if healthy.  Not for use in pregnant women , not for use in those who have contact with immunosuppressed individual, not in those with chronic illnesses.   There is an increased risk of contraction of the illness or in passing the illness to someone else when using a live vaccine.  
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Chapter 18
pharmacology exam 2
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