English 242 Test

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  1. Realism
    realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. he faithful representation of reality"

    • Example:
    • Booker T Washington was a author that used realism. In his autobiography Up from Slavery he told the story of his life and the fulfillment of what seemed to be a "myth" that all African American's looked at as the American Dream. Du Bois was also a realist, he shared his views on Washington's theories as well as wrote a book about the struggles slaves went through.
  2. The grasshopper metaphor

    who wrote it?
    The Grasshopper Metaphor: in the second paragraph of Criticism and Fiction What Howells is implying here is that artists need to study and describe real life in order to reflect this reality and to get at "truth."  He also implies that a writer should be like a scientist, an objective and accurate recorder of natural phenomenon.

    • Who wrote it?
    • William Dean Howells


    Criticism and Fiction he displays this by using specific detail and description, the focus of "ordinary" people of all classes, and by focusing on the surface details of reality.
  3. Foil
    a foil is a character who contrasts with another character (usually theprotagonist) in order to highlight particular qualities of the other character.[2][3][4] A foil usually either differs drastically or is extremely similar but with a key difference setting them apart. The concept of a foil is also more widely applied to any comparison that is made to contrast a difference between two things.

    Example: In the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, there was a prime example of this going on. Huck and Buck for one have similar names, around the same age and take each other in right away. The contrast here is that Buck is raised by a rich family and Huck is raised by a poor family yet they're still friends. Thanks to Buck we learn that upbringing, class, and status aren't everything.
  4. Narrative point-of-view
    The perspective from which a story is told. The narrator may be either a fictive person devised by the author as a stand-alone entity, the author himself, and/or a character in the story. The narrator is considered participant as an actual character in the story, narrative point-of-view, which determines through whose perspective the story is viewed and narrative voice, which determines a set of consistent features regarding the way through which the story is communicated to the audience.

    Example:  the celebrated jumping ford of Calaveras county, the narrator's point of view in this story is first-person. The narrator who seems to be a well Educated man from the East present the story of Jim Smiley, told in Simon Wheeler's uneducated dialect.
  5. Satiric
    the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing,denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.

    • Example:
    • The Jumping Frog is a satirical tall tale that relies on humor and exaggeration to make a point. In a way Twain makes the audience feel comfortable which allows himself the freedom to make fun of all corners of the American Society at the time. This tale was meant to poke fun of the poorly educated Westerners.
  6. Picaresque
    of or relating to an episodic style of fiction dealing with the adventures of a rough and dishonest but appealing hero. Of or relating to a type of fiction in which the hero, a rogue, goesthrough a series of episodic adventures. It originated in Spain in the16th century

    Example: An example would be the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. This novel can best be described as picaresque because it basically is a novel on the road or on an adventure (but specifically on the river). Huck in this instance is the hero.
  7. Episodic
    containing or consisting of a series of loosely connected parts or events.

    Example: Huckleberry Finn, looking at how the novel was constructed, one can see that this was meant to be a episodic narrative. This story takes its form from nature, in this case, the mighty Mississippi River flowing through the heart of America. Because of this story's episodic nature, the novels form can best be described as a novel on the road. In which this novel takes place on a river.
  8. Dramatic irony
    Dramatic Irony In a narrative, dramatic irony is when the action in a story obviously conflicts with a character's or narrator's judgments.  Consequently, the reader can compare the action of the story to the judgment of the character and conclude that the character's judgment is wrong.

    • Relates to Text
    • For instance, in  "Editha," Editha thinks that if George chooses to go to war he will be acting nobly and will be heroic.  However, in the story itself when George does enlist is because he isn't thinking, gets carried away by the mood of a mob, and is perhaps a little drunk. It is hard to see this action as "noble" and "heroic" and one is forced to doubt Editha.

    Another Example:
  9. Tone
    Tone: Tone is "the attitude of the author toward the reader or subject matter of a literaty work.  An author's tone may be serious, playful, mocking, angry, commanding, apologetic, so forth

    Related to text: In "Editha," Howells mocks Editha's ideas with phrases and word choice.  Notice the tone and word choice that Howells uses in the scene in which Editha waves goodbye to George: She felt safe for him through the strength of what she caller her love. 
  10. Local color
    Local color texts are texts that follow the basic patterns of realism, especially its use of detailed description and use of  "ordinary people," but also focus on the dialogue, manners, habits, and unique qualities of a specific region

    • Examples: 
    • both of the stories, "The White Heron" and "The Notorious Jumping Frog of  Calaveras County," would also be classified as local color works. in the Notorious Jumping frog of Calaveras County, local color writing is important in this work because it portrays westerners as dumb, more simpleminded than the Easter people. By using Local color writing, it makes the story seem funny because of the usage of words like "feller" or "warn't"
  11. Naturalism
    Naturalism (in art and literature) a style and theory of representation based on the accurate depiction of detail.

    Example: The Novel Sister Carrie, the author attached great importance to objectivity, frankness and realist in his writing placed much stress on the decisive role of heredity, desire, destiny, chance, economy, and the environment.  In sister specifically several themes were touched. The American Dream, competition, immorality, sex, and wealth and poverty. Among them, naturalistic themes such as immorality and sex permeate this novel, which unfolds an immortal world.
  12. Yellow journalism
    journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration. derived from "The Yellow Kid," a popular comic strip from the 1890's

    • Example:
    • Jack Landon and Stephen crane were both reporters during the War, and they were known for this because they would exaggerate how bad the situation actually was.
  13. Determinism
    Determinism, the belief that environment, social background, instinctual drives, and heredity play a larger part in determining one's life than free will.

    Example: Two prime examples are The Open Boat  and To Build a Fire. The Open Boat because in this story the weather plays a huge role on the character, and restricts him the entire story. The snow and cold weather ultimately prevents him from building a fire. The Open Boat does this as well, the high winds and waves prevent the main character from getting to his true destination.
  14. Social Darwinism
    Social Darwinism the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform. In such a scenario, there are destined to be winners and losers in the world.  Furthermore, humans as animals in the evolutionary chain will not act primarily by reason but will act according to their environment, breeding, and instinct.

    • Example:
    • To build a fire, the main character in this novel doesn't act by reason, he doesn't listen to the old man that told him that no man could survive going out in cold weather below zero. However, the main character decides to leave the spot he was once in where he was safe, ignoring the sensible advice he was given. And instead acted by instinct, thinking he could make it in this weather and he didn't have to listen which caused him to die.

  15. Niagra Movement
    The Niagara Movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter. During the reconstruction Era that followed the American Civil War.

    Examples: Authors such as Du Bois and Washington represent opposite sides of the Niagra Movement (as far as their views). As well as the Adventures of Huckle Berry Finn Seemed seemed to base its story basically around this time, generally in this violent era.
  16. New Negro Movement
    is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term "New Negro" was made popular by Alain LeRoy Locke.

    Example: Hughes was a writer during this era, specifically the book "The Glided Six-Bits" had a lot of representation of black culture and experience. In this story specifically it talks about segregated black communities meant to empower its black citizens and prove the surrounding white world that blacks are capable of self-government, independence, integrity, and indigenous forms or expression.
  17. Pan- Africanism
    A movement that suggested that despite the black diaspora created by slavery, blacks shared a core set of African values.  Africa itself was the source of black culture.

    Example: I believe that the basic influence of black culture is seen through Lanston Hughes's "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"  in which Hughes' poem speaks to deep cultural history which Du Bois often alluded as undiscovered strength of African-American culture. In this story the race identity of the speaker in this poem, although throughout the story there are subtle hints because of the culture.
  18. Who wrote Editha?
  19. Author of The White Heron
  20. Author of The Notorious Jumping Fog of Calaveras County
  21. Author of The New England Nun
  22. Author of The Wife of His Youth
  23. Author of Sweatshop Romance
  24. Author of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
    Mark Twain
  25. Author of To Build a Fire
  26. Author of The Open Boat
  27. Author of  Sister Carrie
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English 242 Test
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