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  1. What is an attitude?
    • A stable positive or negative evaluation of some person, object, or issue
    • *potential to influence social thought and behavior
  2. Attitudes are...(4)
    • -acquired
    • *learned over time


    • -affective
    • *involved good/bad evaluations

    -about a particular object
  3. What are the ABCs of attitudes?

    -Behavioral intention


    • Ex) Attitude object for voting
    • -Feelings of involvement in an upcoming election-affect
    • -intentions to vote-behavioral tendency
    • -knowledge about where to vote-cognitions
  4. Which method do we use to learn people's attitudes?
    • -direct measurement
    • *asking people to report their attitudes
    • *scales and surveys
  5. What can be a potential problem for using direct measurement to learn people's attitudes? (2)
    -unwilling to unable to report true attitude

    • -social desirability
    • *trying to present a favorable impression
  6. Study on "Are people willing to be direct about sharing their attitudes?" What was the conclusion?
    More people confessed to using the cheating strategy when hooked up to the bogus pipeline than self reporting it.
  7. What is an indirect strategy for measuring attitudes on people?
    Disguised self reports
  8. What are 2 types of disguised self reports?
    -protective tests

    • -implicit associates test
    • *reaction time and errors to good/bad associations
  9. How do we acquire attitudes? (4)

    • -affect
    • *classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, modeling


    • -behavior
    • *cognitive dissonance
  10. What is the cognitivist perspective on people's attitudes?
    • People form attitudes according to a rational thoughtful process
    • *when asking someone why they like something, we expect them to tell us their beliefs.
  11. Cognitivist perspective- how do we change people's attitudes?
    We have to change their beliefs
  12. emotivist perspective: Social learning perspective
    Attitudes are learned through positive and negative associations
  13. Under emotivist perspective, social learning perspective, how are rewards and punishments associated by?
    Rewards= positive attitudes

    punishments= negative attitudes
  14. Learning perspectives) Classical conditioning:
    • Stimulus contingent learning
    • *when a neutral stimulus is associated with a positive or negative event we learn positive or negative associations.
  15. What is Operant conditioning?
    • Response contingent learning
    • *associate a response with a positive or negative reinforcement
    • **press button and food appears
  16. Research on Operant conditioning) Insko telephone survey conclusion
    -when they gave students nonverbal reinforcers regarding in support of a tuition hike, more pro tuition hike statements made by this group even 2-3 weeks later
  17. Observational learning- what is modeling?
    • People acquire new forms of thought/behavior simply by observing others
    • *kids often learn to do as their parents DO, not what they say
    • **ex) smoking
  18. Genetics studies- Twin studies
    -greater similarity between monozygotic twins than dizygotic even when reared apart. The preferences were more associated with gut level attitudes than cognitive attitudes
  19. What makes an attitude strong? (4)



    -Fazio model of attitude accessibility
  20. Fazio model of attitude accessibility) How is accessibility defined?
    • How easily/rapidly will an attitude come to mind when shown attitude object
    • *measured in reaction time
  21. Fazio model of attitude accessibility) how is attitude activated? And how is behavior affected?
    Attitude is activated when called to mind which leads to behavior being affected.
  22. Accessibility) What is chronic?
    Everyday attitude toward something
  23. Accessibility) What is temporary?
    Through priming
  24. Biased assimilation study: what was the result when there was low accessibility and high accessibility?
    Low= no influence on rating of studies

    high= rating of studies strongly biased by attitude
  25. Conclusion on attitudes linked to behavior
    • 90% of the same establishments said they would not welcome Chinese guests but in reality only the group was refused service once.
    • **attitudes did not predict behavior very well
  26. What is the formula of the theory of planned behavior? (3>1>1)
    Attitude toward a behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control > intention > behavior
  27. Implications for measurement) Greater attitude:
    Behavior consistency when the attitude measured is specific to target rather than general

    Ex) specific: attitude toward paper recycling on campus

    General: environmental attitudes
  28. Moral attitudes) moral mandates:
    Attitude positions that people develop out of a moral conviction that something is right or wrong

    *people intolerant of others who hold opposing moral positions
  29. COnclusion of study Sitka, Bauman, saris
    Person sat further away when they were morally motivated than when they only had an attitude.
  30. Attitudes consist of? (3)



    *if someone can change these 3 things from a person, they can change their attitude
  31. What do persuasive messages try to do?
    Generally try to change how people think about something
  32. What 3 factors make messages persuasive?
    • -source
    • *attractiveness of communicator

    • -content
    • *quality of message

    • -audience
    • *who is listening to the message
Card Set
Attitudes and persuasion
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