Chapter 30-31 Test

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  1. President Harding
    • Elected 1920
    • Legacy of scandals
  2. Tea pot dome
    government officials leased land to allow oil drilling on reserve land
  3. President Coolidge Motto
    • Elected after Harding
    • "The business of American is business"
  4. Tariffs
    • Raised to over 30%
    • Smoot Hawley
    • Fordney mccumber
  5. J. Edgar Hoover
    In charge of rooting out communists
  6. Red Scare
    Time when communism is bad
  7. Nichola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
    • Trial for Italian immigrants what were charged with murdering a paymaster
    • Convinced because judge was prejudiced
    • They were atheist
  8. Mitchell Palmer
    • Attorney general who lead a nation wide crusade against communists
    • 249 sent back to Russia
  9. Nativist Fears
    • Against immigrants- Eastern Europe
    • Against Jews, orthodox Greeks, Catholics
    • Against communism
    • wanted to restrict immigration
  10. Proletariat Fears
    • Working class
    • Feared they would ban together and take over the government
  11. Disillusioned Americans Characteristics
    • People living after ww1
    • Denounced "radical" foreign ideas
    • Condemned un American lifestyles
    • Did not want relations with foreign nations (government)
    • Restricted immigrants
  12. KKK
    • Increase in powers
    • Against pacifists, blacks, immigrants, Jews, Catholics
  13. Birth of a Nation
    • Propaganda promoting the KKK
    • Documentary
  14. 1921 Emergency Quota Act
    Restricted immigration to 3% of each nationality in 1910
  15. 1924 National Origins Act
    • Limited the number of people to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already in the US
    • Excluded Japanese
  16. Life for Immigrants
    "We eat everyday, better than on Easter in Poland"
  17. Cultural Pluralism
    • Smaller groups in a large society maintain their cultural
    • China town
    • Americans were tolerant of this
  18. Volstead Act
    18th amendment-outlawed alcohol
  19. Prohibition Characteristics
    • Trying to get rid of alcohol sales *not consumption*
    • Popular in south and west
    • Not popular in eastern cities
    • Immigrants against this
    • "Noble experiment"
    • Speakeasy- illegal bar
    • Rum runners- running alcohol across Canadian border
    • Bathtub gin- alcohol made at home
  20. Gangsters
    • Al Capone
    • Bootlegging, prostitution, gambling, narcotics
    • Forced merchants to pay "protection money"
  21. John Dewey
    • Trying to reform education
    • "Learning by doing"
    • Progressive education: education for life
    • Improved nutrition and medical practices
    • Life expectancy increases Evolution
  22. Scopes Trail
    • 1925 Charged with teaching evolution which was illegal in Tennessee
    • Fundamentalists v Darwinists
    • Lost-had to pay $100
    • Symbolic of the conflict between progressive urban residents and country fundamentalists
  23. Consumer Economy/Age of Prosperity
    • Economic expansion
    • Rapid expansion of Capitol
    • Mass production
    • Assembly line (increased worker activity)
    • Age of the automobile
  24. Changes in Farming
    • Lose agricultural markets in post war Europe
    • Efficiency increased but couldn't sell (sent prices down)
    • Lost farms to the bank
  25. Celebrities
    • Babe Ruth and Ty Cobb
    • Jack Dempsey-boxing
    • Charles Lindbergh- pilot
  26. Henry Ford
    • Assembly line and mass production
    • Makes Detroit the motorcar Capitol
    • Frederick w Taylor- father of scientific management (industrial efficiency)
  27. Federal reserve system
    • Over sees banks and creates money policy
    • Board of governors consisting of 7 people appointed by the president
    • Sets interest rates
    • High- less loans
    • Low-more loans
    • Delano
    • Gould
    • Sumner
  28. Effects of buying on credit
    Some people couldn't pay back the money, leading to bank closers
  29. Ford Model T
    • Cost $260
    • Possible for the average American to buy one
    • Only in black
    • Mass production and assembly line
  30. Effects of Gasoline Age
    • •Rubber, Glass, Fabrics- Highway building
    • •Petroleum-California, Texas,
    • •Oklahoma rigs, gas stations, motels
  31. Orville and Wilbur Wright
    • •Kitty hawk, NC December 17, 1903
    • •12 second, 129 foot flight
  32. Barnstorming
    airplane tricks
  33. Charles Lingurgh
    • •First transcontinental flight
    • •Plane- spirit of st Louis in 1927
    • •Created national pride
  34. 1920s Culture
    • •Flappers
    • •Club scene
    • •Gangsters
    • •Prohibition
  35. Gulielmo Marconi
    Invented radio
  36. Movies/The Great Train Robbery
    • •First movie
    • •12 minutes long
  37. The Jazz Singer
    First talking movie
  38. Marcus Garvey
    • •Offered to send blacks to Africa
    • •Founded negro improvement association
    • •Believed in black superiority and segregation
  39. The Jazz Age
    • •Jazz , Blues, Ragtime music was popular
    • •WC handy: father of the blues
  40. Blacks in Poverty
    Mostly in the south through share cropping which brought black by making it impossible for blacks to escape debt and farming
  41. Women's Dynamic Decade-Sanger
    Promoted birth control and equal rights
  42. National women's Party
    • •Founded by Alice Paul to promote the vote
    • •Women protested for the vote on the street in front of the White House, were arrested, jailed, and hunger struck for the vote
  43. Sigmund Freud
    Psychologist who said that past experiences especially with family members determined ones future relationships
  44. Changes in women's lives
    • •Changes in dress and behavior
    • •Shorter skirts and hair, smoking, working outside the home
  45. Cultural liberation in literature
    • Writers begin to write about new themes of disillusionment
    • loss of patriotism
    • personal struggles to reconcile life before and after the war
    • personal failures in war
  46. The lost generation writers
    • •Fitzgerald and the Great Gatsby wrote of the poor morality of the upper class
    • •Hemingway wrote of make feelings of inadequacy in novels like the Old Man and Sea
  47. Champion of skyscrapers
  48. Bull market
    Stock market with high buying and selling
  49. Harlem Renaissance jazz musicians and writers
    • Louis Armstrong and duke Ellington
    • Langston Hugh's- greatest poet
    • Cullen-first female poet
    • Zora neale Hurston- female writer who wrote about experiences of strong women in society
  50. Great migration
    Blacks moving north to exchange Jim Crow and find better employment
  51. Roaring 20s/urban society
    • •More people lived in cities than in country
    • •Modern America is born at this time
  52. Election of 1920 Goods and Bads
    • Goods-
    • •Charles Evan Hugh's- Secretary of State
    • •Andrew w Mellon- secretary of treasury
    • •Herbert Hoover- secretary of commerce
    • Bads-
    • •Albert b fall- secretary of interior (anti conservationist
    • •Harry m daughterty- attire general (crook)
  53. Supreme Court legislation
    • •Shot down child labor laws
    • •Restricted government intervention in economy
    • •Adkins v children's hospital: Reserved muller v Oregon which had allowed minimum wage law for women
    • •Theory- women now=with the vote; so don't need protective legislation
  54. Laissez faire economics
    • •government regulation decrease; encourages consolidation
    • •Esch Cummings transportation act: encouraged railroad consolidation and non interference of interstate commission
  55. Merchant marine act
    dispose of 1500 wartime fleet-not much success
  56. Labor unions
    • Membership deceased by 30% in 1920s
    • railway labor union board-cut wages 12% in 1922
    • Daugherty stopped strikers with sweeping injunction
  57. Veterans bureau
    • •established 1921
    • •provided hospitals and vocational rehabilitation for disabled
    • •adjusted compensation act 1924: promise bonus to veterans in 20 years-cost 3.5 billion
  58. International issues
    • •July 1921: congress issues joint declaration to end war
    • •US not involved in League of Nations
    • •Middle East oil issue: British v US claims- agree to share
  59. Kellogg Briand pact 1928
    • •anti war pledge (only defensive war)
    • •led by frank b Kellogg (secretary of state to Coolidge)
    • •62 nations ratify
    • •useless: give US false sense of security
  60. Disarmament conference 1921-1922
    10 year holiday on construction of battle ships
  61. Five power treaty
    • •5:5:3 ratio but US and Britain will not fortify holdings in Far East
    • •future problem: Japanese aggression in WW2
  62. Nine power treaty 1922
    • •open door note in china
    • RESULT:
    • •no restrictions on small warships-other countries build
    • •penny pinching US- left far behind
  63. Fordney McCumber Tariff (1922)
    • •Increased tariff from 27-38.5%
    • •through Harding and Coolidge- 32 upward changes and 5 downward
    • •destructive chain reaction
  64. Forbes
    • Former deserter- assigned as head of veterans bureau
    • loots $200 million through veteran hospital building projects
    • sentenced to 2 years
  65. Teapot Dome Scandal
    • •Elk Hills, CA and Teapot Dome, WY- land for naval oil preserves
    • •Albert B. Falls gets navy to transfer property to interior department
    • •leases land to Harry F. Sinclair and Edward Doheny
    • •gave Fall a bride of $400,000
    • •Fall convicted; Sinclair and Doheny acquitted
  66. Attorney General Daughery
    • •senate investigation (1924) of illegal sale of pardons and liquor permits
    • •forced to resign; released when jury never agreed
  67. Characteristics of Coolidge
    • •becomes president when Harding dies
    • •thrift, honestly, industry
    • •Laissez Faire attitude towards business
  68. Frustrated Farmers
    • •made money during WW1
    • •problems: over production and debt
  69. Capper Volstead Act 1921
    exempted farmer cooperatives from antitrust laws
  70. McNary Haugen Bill
    • •government tried to buy surpluses and sell abroad
    • •Coolidge vetoes bill twice
  71. Election of 1924- LaFollete
    • •Coolidge- republican- 15, 718
    • •John Davis- democrat- 8,386,283 votes-WY senator
  72. US isolationism
    • •Coolidge
    • •senate refused to adhere to world court (l of n)
    • •Coolidge unsuccessfully sought some further naval disarmament
  73. Latin American acts
    • •Dominican Republic
    • •Nicaragua
    • •Haiti
    • •Mexico
  74. Debt Issues
    • •US largest creditor nation after WW1 (16 billion + 10 billion more loaned throughout the 1920s)
    • •US insisted Allies pay back it's 10 billion loan
    • •other countries
  75. Dawes Plan 1924
    • •set up a new payment schedule for the $32 million from the Germans
    • •made last payment in 2010
    • •came too late the help Germany politically
  76. Election of 1928
    • Herbert Hoover- republican (21+ million votes)
    • Alfred E Smith- democrat
  77. Characteristics of Hoover
    • •self made man, efficient, business man
    • •hero of WW1- head of food administration
    • •rugged individualism and isolationism
    • •progressive learning
  78. Alfred Smith Characteristics
    • •democrat
    • •popular NY Governor-catholic and anti prohibition
  79. Federal Farm Board
    • •buying, selling, and storing surplus
    • •grain stabilizing corporation and cotton stabilizing corporation (1930)- established by board
  80. Hawley Smoot Tariff
    • •highest protective tariff 60%
    • •supposed to help farmers
    • •made depression worse
  81. Black Tuesday
    • •October 29, 1929
    • •market had been dramatically fluctuating in October
    • •16,410,030 shares sold that day
    • •by the end of 1929 stockholders lost $40 billion
    • •start of business depression at home and abroad
  82. Great Depression characteristics
    • •by the end of 1930 4 million workers jobless: triples in 2 years
    • •5000 banks collapsed in 3 years
  83. Causes of Great Depression
    • •over production of farm and factory
    • •over expansion of credit
    • •technological unemployment
    • •economic chaos abroad
    • •drought: Mississippi Valley and Dust Bowl
  84. Americans Not Prepared to Respond
    • •to Great Depression
    • •private relief organizations and local government relief efforts are overwhelmed
  85. Hoovers attitude toward relief
    gave aid to railroads, banks, and rural credit corporations
  86. Public works
    • •The Hoover Dam on Colorado River
    • •fought against socialistic projects
    • •2.25 billion
  87. Reconstruction finance corporation
    • •5 billion
    • •gave loans to businesses
  88. Norris La Guardia anti injunction act
    outlawed "yellow dog" contracts and forbade federal courts to issue injunctions for strikes, boycotts, and pickets
  89. Criticisms of Hoover
    • •Hoovervilles and Hoover blankets
    • •opened the way for FDRs more radical methods
  90. Bonus Army money
    • •WW1 veterans
    • •wanted bonus payment promised in 1945 in 1932
    • •20,000 came to Washington- lived in Hooverville
    • •public health issue
  91. Government reaction to bonus army
    • •sent Douglass MacAurther ordered to evict
    • •used teargas and bayonets
    • •Hoover took blame
  92. Japan and Manchuria
    • •japan over ran Manchuria sept 1931
    • •violates League of Nations
  93. Stimson doctrine
    said US would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force
  94. Effect of japan in Manchuria
    world security fades
  95. Good neighbor policy
    took forces from Nicaragua and Haiti
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Chapter 30-31 Test
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