Philosophy Kant Chapter 1

  1. Two Key Ideas
    • 1. Seek out and establish supreme principle of morality (The Categorical Imperative)
    • 2. Moral philosophy be should be pure (w/o feeling or experience or inclination. Solely based on reason/ a priori/rational
  2. The Categorical Imperative
    • formula of universal law
    • formula of humanity
  3. Metaphysics of Morals
    • 1. Material
    • 2. Formal
  4. Metaphysics of Morals
    1. Material
    • Based on experience 
    • ie practical anthropology 
    • tell us what people believe about morality (inclination)
  5. Metaphysics of morals
    2. Formal
    • NOT based on experience
    • Is moral philosophy
    • tells us what we SHOULD do and how we SHOULD act (obligation. Do what's right b/c it's right)
  6. Two types of Good
    • 1. appears moral (conforms to moral law, inclination.)
    • 2. is moral and done for the sake for moral law (obligation) thus has moral worth
  7. Scenario: steal old lady's purse
    • if natural desire to help is character = contingent
    • if acted upon rational obligation thought through ish = stable
  8. Good Will
    • intrinsic value, good in itself
    • good even when bad outcomes ensue
  9. Gift of fortune and nature
    what makes this good?
    • fortune - power, wealth
    • nature - character traits, genetics
    • have no intrinsic value 

    • scenario - villain is handsome, wealthy, intelligent
    • instrumental value is good based on HOW we use them
  10. goodwill gem story
    • dirty gem represent bad outcome (don't see value immediately so don't know the true worth)
    • clean gem represent good outcome (see value immediately)
  11. Happiness and Reason
    reason does not exist to make you happy, it's there to make you moral (produce a goodwill)
  12. Moral Worth and Duty
    shop keeper scenario
    A - honest b/c of selfish motive (business will suffer if he doesn't). Only appears moral thus lacks moral worth

    B - duty to be honest. Is moral thus has moral worth
  13. Moral Worth and Duty
    suicide scenario
    • A - non suicidal, don't kill yourself b/c has everything (inclination) 
    • B - non suicidal, don't kill yourself even in Job like situation, HAS moral worth
  14. when you remove all inclination. what's left is moral law itself
    moral law = never act in such a way that I could not will that my maxim should not become a universal law
  15. Duty gives action moral worth
    supreme principle of morality = categorical imperative = formula of universal law
  16. Lying 
    prudence (no moral worth)
    • more convenient to lie than tell the truth
    • how will the lie benefit me? if lie can benefit me, tell it. If not, don't lie (utility)

    • Reason based on prudence (human nature)
    • morality shouldn't be that fickle
  17. Lying 
    Duty (categorical imperative)
    • If I universalize lying (as in other people know I am. loan story) then lying becomes impossible. Promising would cease to exist if lying was universalized.
    • Inconsistency and contradiction (when you lie and it's universalized, it contradicts the purpose of lying)
Card Set
Philosophy Kant Chapter 1
Kant ethics