depolarization of the axon is the movement of ____ ions ____ (in or out)
sodium ions rush into the neuron during depoolarization
Bicarbonate ions in the blood help maintain
pH of the blood
alkohols can be converted to alky halides by.....
HBr (or HCl, etc. )
What kind of free radical is most stable?
a tertiary free radical is the most stable
Blood pH is normally
An________ has two oxygen atoms with single bonds to the same carbon atom
An __________ is a constitutional isomer of the ketone, meaning the enol form of something and the ketone form of that something must have the same molecular formula but differ in the placement of a single proton.
A decarboxylation reaction would remove a ________ from the reactant.
a molecule with a carbon that contains two bonds to oxygen is more_________than a molecule with a single bond to oxygen.
_________ is the transformation of a compound with one molecular formula into a compound with the same molecular formula but a different structure
______ should have both a double bond (en) and an alcohol (ol).
______________ have the same molecular formula but different structures.
take away bone mass, release more ca into the blood
build up bone mass
The most reactive alcohol in an sn1 will generate ___________
a stable cabocation intermediate (i.e. tertiary)
During inspiration, the diaphragm and the external intercostal rib muscles ______.
During inspiration, the diaphragm and the external intercostal rib muscles contract. This causes elevation of the rib cage, expanding the chest and decreasing the pressure inside the _______ cavity
Vitamin D helps the body absorb ____
When calcium in the blood is low....
the body will increase the level of parathyroid hormone. parathyroid hormone increases the number of osteoclasts which are responsible for breaking down bone, thus releasing calcium into to the blood stream
reduces bone resorption. it is released if there is alot of calcium in the blood so the activity of osteoclasts is less needed.
where is calcitonin produced?
in the thyroid
where is parathyroid produced and what does it do?
parathyroid makes your body produce more osteoclasts to break down bone and release more calcium into the blood. it is mad in the parathyroid glands which are located right behind the thyroid.
Non polar molecules are _____ soluble (water or lipid)
what would happen if you did not have parathyroid glands?
you would have very low levels of ca in your blood and this would mess up the membrane potential for the neurons which relies on the presence of extracellular calcium. so you would have severe nervous and muscular system problems.
products of kinetic control in ochem reactions are identified because they have a __________
lower energy of activation (form faster)
__________ is a hormone that aids in the regulation of blood pressure—it is a mineral corticoid secreted by the adrenal gland.
What causes aldosterone secretion?
Aldosterone is secreted in response to low sodium concentration.
______ is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to low blood sugar that stimulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis;
secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood sugar. it makes the cells take up the sugar in the blood
secreted by the thyroid in order to regulate metabolism
As blood enters the kidney, it first enters the glomerulus, which isa bundle of capillaries.
blood pressure forces plasma into Bowman’s capsule—the __________ acts as a strainer, allowing filtration of smaller molecules and fluid into the Bowman’s capsule
all of the filtration in the kidney occurs in the _________
__________ is the site of reabsorption of ions like sodium and chloride, and also water. It is also the site of secretion of urea
The loop of Henle
_____________ is the site of sodium reabsorption and proton and potassium ion secretion.
distal convoluted tubule
___________ is the site of resorption of amino acids, glucose, water, sodium, and chloride
proximal convoluted tubule
A ______ always has the formula Rn–COOH. When it’s deprotonated, it has the general structure Rn–COO–Na+.
an organic acid
The _______ portion of the pancreas is the portion recognized as part of the digestive system—it secretes a number of proteolytic enzymes (proteo– for proteins and –lytic for lysis, or breaking) into the pancreatic duct (exocrine) that leads to the small intestine
Bile salts are secreted by the ____ and stored in the _______
liver; gall bladder
Gastric juices are produced by the____
mesoderm gives rise to _________
muscles, the skeleton, and the internal organs, including heart and blood vessels
The epidermis, lens of the eye and nervous system are derived from the ectoderm
The endoderm gives rise to the linings of the gut and respiratory system
Explain the Renin Angiotensin system fully.
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance.When blood volume is low, the kidneys secrete renin. Renin stimulates the production of angiotensin. Angiotensin causes blood vessels to constrict, resulting in increased blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water into the blood. This increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure.If the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is too active, blood pressure will be too high.
result of too much interstitial fluid
converts ammonia to urea
alpha cells secrete
beta cells secrete
menstrual cycle graph when there is a spike in LH and FSH
promotes the growth of a follicle in the ovary
secreted by ANTERIOR PITUITARY
follicle stimulating hormone
first part of menstrual cycle
What do follicular cells do?
build up the endometrium to get it ready for implantation of the fertilized egg
WHat does LH do?
in mid cycle, a bunch of LH gets produced and causes the corpeus luteum to forma and initiates ovulation which is when the ovarian follicle ruptures and lets go of the ovum
corpus luteum funxn.
produces progesterone and this makes estrogen work harder and build up the endometrium even more
What does the HPA axis regulate?
the hypothamalamus secretes vasopressin and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) when you are under stress
CRH and vasopressin make the pituitary secrete ACTH
ACTH makes the adrenal gland make glucocoritcoid (aka cortisol) a stress hormone.
this is a negative feedback loop. the more cortisol will go back and inhibit the release of vasopressin and CRH from the hypothalamus.
the bp when the ventricles are relaxing
contraction of venticles
in what order do the larynx pharynx and trachea appear?
alphabetical as you go down the throat: larynx, pharynx, trachea
What is ADH? where produced?
produced in the liver, ADH breaks down alcohol. alcohol dehydrogenase.
Sympathetic nervous system and what does it do to what body part? WHat neurotransmitter is involved?
fight or flight
Heart-Increases rate and force of contraction
Digestive tract-Inhibits peristalsis
Kidney-Increases renin secretion
Para sympathetic nervous system and what does it do?
SLUDD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation
rest and relax functions
What is the nephron>
the filter units of the kidneys
proximal convuluted tubules reabsorb
water, glucose, amino acid. vitamins, potassium
recieve ions from the proximal tubules
descending loop of henle
allows only water to leave the filtrate. it is the first section
ascending loop of henle
allows only sodium to leave the tubule
distal convuluted tubule
secretion of uric acid, H+ ions, from the capillaries into the tubule occurs here
ADH acts on
convoluted tubule to cause more sodium to be reabsorbed and thus more water so bp goes up and urine is more concentrated (less water)
the hypothalamus regulates
The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and circadian cycles.
also first part of the HPA axis
1.)look for is hydrogen bonding, so your looking or F,O,N bonded to a hydrogen.
2.) Look for polar functionality
3.) Look for larger molecule
4.) look for straightest chain (instead of branching)Basically go down that checklist, if you have a tie, (two alcohols) go to the next one, if its absent or another tie, go to the next one. Once you find a difference you have found the higher boiling point. I also don't think the MCAT would try to trip you up with a gigantic non-polar molecule vs. Methanol, as that would be difficult to gauge.
what does peptidyl transferase do?
it makes peptide bonds form
What do T lymphocytes do?
act against the body's own cells that have been inhabited by a fungus or virus.
Antibodies are produced by __________ derived from b lymphocytes
The cerebellum does...
motor coordinations, hand eye coordinations, balance, and timing of rapid movements.
alcohol affects the cerebellum, hence drunks stumble and have bad coordination
What focuses light onto the retina?
the cornea and the lense. both of which are concave lenses.
trace pathway of blood
superior vena cava to the right atrium to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the lungs to the pulmonary veins to the left atrium to the left ventricle to the aorta