based on the description of health and wellness in class what is true?
wellness is the balanced integration of physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual facets of life
true or false. according to the dietary supplement and education act dietary supplements that make general health and performance related claims do not require FDA approval
what is not a reason for improvement for life expectancy in the past 100 years?
increases in physical activity levels and improvements in dietary behavior
true or false. if a power athlete has a high level of sport related fitness, you can automatically assume they will also have health related fitness?
"blank" refers to when dispensable or nonessential nutrients are required to maintain or improve health status due to a health condition
true or false. when considering scope of practice, in health club setting it is okay for a registered dietician that does not have an excersize physiology degree or credentials, to give non-medical related general excersize advice (public health guidelines). similarly it is okay for an excersize physiologist that does not have a nutrition degree or an RD, to give non-medical nutrition advice (public health guidelines).
what is the normal response for diastolic blood pressure during moderate to vigorous exercise as compared to resting levels?
small decrease or no change
list factors that influence human performance (9)
research and protocol on effective training
specificity of training and single sport focus from early age
speed skating race took 6min and 10.8 sec what are the main energy sources throughout?
anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis
true or false. frequent negative energy balance in competitive athletes can result in muscle loss, inadequate glycogen stores, hormonal imbalance, impaired immune function, secondary amenorrhea, and osteoporosis.
the situation of constant negative energy balance is considered to be:
70kg weight person wioth 60-90 min activity 6 days a week 3-4 high repetition lifting sessions and 2 days of yoga would need how many gms of carbohydrates/day?
about 600gms or 9g/kg
true or false. enriched flour has more folate than whole wheat flower?
if an athlete is doing a sport that uses a large amount of glycogen and is going to ingest carbs during the event in the form of a drink what is the recommended amount they should consumeevery 15 min to meet the upper limit of what is tolerable?
8oz with 15 grams of carbs every 15 min
true or false combining carbs with protein post workout tends to increase the amount of glycogen stored versus consuming carbs alone
if an athlete depletes his or her glycogen stores, how long does it take usually to fully recover them if the person is eating proper carb levels?
which of the following carb sources contain about 15 grams of carbs per serving? (3)
1 slice of bread
small to medium piece of fruit
8 ounce sports drink
1/2 cup of veggies
1 ounce of meat
slice of bread
small to medium piece of fruit
8oz sports drink
true or false. increases in glucagon favor an increase of glycogen stores.
true or false. ultra endurance athletes recommendations for carbs in grams/kg are 11 or more
true or false. the AMDR for carbs is 45-65% of total calories
true or false. fast-twitch muscle fibers prefer using carbs via aerobic glycolysis
true or false. majority of CHO digesting takes place in the duodenum and jejunum
gluconeogenesis involves making CHO from non-carb sources what are the 3 substrates used for glucooneogenesis
lactate (cori cycle)
amino acids (cahill cycle)
one 8 oz cup of milk is equal to how many grams of protein?
1 oz of meat is equal to how many grams of protein?
1/2 cup of beans (cooked) is equal to how many grams of protein?
one slice of bread is equal to how many grams of protein?
monounsaturated fats = what percent of the diet?
up to 20%
polyunsaturated fats = what percentage of the diet?
saturated fats = what percentage of the diet?
less than or equal to 7-10%
trans-fats = what percentage of the diet?
less than or equal to 1%
total fats = what percentage of the diet?
when excersizing at 40% of VO2 max what is the average percentage energy coming from CHO and from Fat?
true or false. linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are essential fatty acids for humans.
true or false. reccomendations for both DRI and the ACSM position statement for athletes state that total fat intake should be less than or equal to 40% of total kcals.
the most predominant type of fats in the body are?
what are four negatives that can be contributed to trans fatty acids?
raise blood cholesterol
can increase thrombotic factors in blood (blood viscosity)
if you are evaluating a dietary supplement, list the five things that should be evaluated.
safety, purity, effectiveness, ethical, legal
select the false statement:
A: B-vitamins have many functions as co-enzymes. one example is the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
B: folate plays a role in preventing neural tube defects and was increased in fortification in 1998 in the U.S.
C: since they are water soluble, B-Vitamins are not toxic
D:Niacin is used as a treatment for dyslipidemia
E: all are true
C is not true
which of the following are true?
A: when depleted, there is an increase in muscle protein breakdown and use for energy
B: when depleted there is less hydration in muscles and poorer thermo-regulation
C: depletion leads to an increased onset of fatigue and cramps; impaired recovery
D: high temperatures and humidity decrease the rate of glycogen breakdown
E: all are true
A, B, and C are true
after complete depletion of glycogen stores how long does it take for it to be "loaded"
about 48 hours
a study on elite Kenyan middle distance endurance runners indicated that their intake of carbohydrates as a percentage of their whole caloric intake is??
with interval training, you should intermittently sprint, for about 40 seconds, what should be the ideal rest time between sprints?
30 seconds to a minute
with respect to carb loading, the original method (Bergstrom) how should you load?
with glycogen depleting workout 7-8 days before the event, you should eat low carb high fat diet about days 4-6 before the event, then 3-4 days before the event, you should eat high carb low fat diet.
for power athletes, what are areas of interest (influence) for dietary recommendations for optimal performance?
frequency of training
body composition and type
whether the athlete is in season or out of season
what type of muscle fiber is most commonly used for power and strength athletes?
type IIa fast-twitch red fiber/ Fast-Oxidative-Glycolytic fiber (FOG)
during an event lasting more than two hours, what is the acceptable range for carbohydrate intake?
anywhere from 30 to as high as 100 g/hr
list the three components of the female triad
low energy availability without eating
which person would probably have the most absolute body water?
A: 75 yr old 20% fat
B: 26 yr male old 12% fat 6ft 180lbs
C: 43 yr male old 23% fat 6 ft 200 lbs
D: 8 month old infant
E: 18 yr old female 18% fat 5ft 4in 120 lbs
what is the IOM guidle line for beverage consumed before or during exercise? (% carbs, mg Na/L, mg K/L)
5-10% carbohydrate, 500-700 mg Na/L, and 80-200 mg K/L
how does alcohol contribute to weight gain?
is often consumed with high calorie foods
adds calories to the diet
is metabolized preferentially over lipids
the interstitial fluid is.....
part of the extracellular fluid space (ECF) and comprises 80% of ECF
a collegiate athlete tells you he usually loses 3 pounds from the start of their daily exercise to the end. how much should they drink to replenish this?
9 cups of fluid
what is the nutrient that is involved in protein synthesis that alcohol impairs the absorption and utilization of?
true or false. there is a "cure" for hangovers that you can buy from the drugstore.
which of the following are functions of water in the body?
B: osmotic control
C: temperature regulation
D: pH balance
E: all of the above
E all of the above
true or false. if a person is dehydrated, extracellular fluid will be hypotonic and water will move from inside the cell to the extracellular space.
from rest to exercise the mixed arterio-venous difference does what?
after 3% dehydration of an athlete during competition, what will occur (as opposed to euhydration) to: (indicate increase decrease or no change)
A: plasma volume
B: stroke volume
C: heart rate
D: cardiac output
E: skin blood flow
F: sweat rate
D: stay the same
what muscle fiber is primarily recruited during two minute sprint race?
type II B fast twitch white fiber
for a pt doing two intense practices a day weighing 100 kg around what would you advise (carbohydrate intake in grams) he consume?
what is the recommended drink, for a high glycogen dependent activity for a long period of time, to consume?
8oz with ~ 15 g CHO every 15 min
what is the recommended protein and carb amount to ingest post workout within 1 hour?
15-30 gms PRO and 90-110 gms CHO
what are the two essential fatty acinds in humans?
alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid
what RER would you likely see at onset of vent threshold during a VO2 test with indirect calerimetry?
tell the effect of the following hormones on blood glucose levels (increase decrease of no effect)
can muscle glycogen be used for gluconeogenesis?
true of false: there is minimal digestion of CHO in the stomach, most occurs in the large intestine.
how much protein is in 8oz of milk?
how much protein is in 2oz of meat?
how much protein is in 1.5 cups of cooked beans?
20 or more grams
how much protein in one slice of bread?
based on DRIs what is the appropriate range oof protein intake for healthy adults?
10-35% total calories.
what is the disease of lack of protein causeing edema?
what approx RQ would you see on a persons RMR if they had not eaten for 3 days?