Nonrenewable Resources

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  1. Ownership costs
    equipment, labor, safety, environmental costs, and taxes.
  2. External costs
    processing the resource, transporting the resource
  3. Marginal costs
  4. Benefits (direct and indirect)
    Direct: money, jobs

    Indirect: land can be reclaimed and sold for profit
  5. Surface mining
    If the resource is less than 200 feet away from the surface, the topsoil is removed (and saved), explosives are used to break up rocks and to remove the resource. Reclamation follows
  6. Benefits and Costs of surface mining
    benefits: easy, cheap, and efficient

    costs: temporarily tears up the land, byproducts produce an acid that can accumulate in rivers and lakes
  7. Subsurface Mining
    digging a shaft down to the resource, using machine to tear off and remove the resource
  8. Benefits and cost of subsurface mining
    Benefits: can get to resources far underground

    costs: more expensive, more time consuming, and more dangerous
  9. Reclamation
    Returning the rock layer (overburden) and the topsoil to a surface mine, fertilizing and planting it
  10. Benefits and costs of reclamation
    Benefits: returns land to good condition

    Costs: expensive and time consuming
  11. Primary sources
    the original sources that are used to make electricity and heat (FOSSIL FUELS)
  12. Secondary sources
    the heat and electricity that we use for energy
  13. Cogeneration
    production of two useful forms of energy, such as high-temperature heat or steam and electricity, from the same fuel source
  14. Fossil fuels
    energy conversion is from chemical to electrical, heat or mechanical. 30 % efficiency
  15. Benefits and costs of fossil fuels
    Benefits: easy to use, currently available

    Costs: A nonrenewable resource, produces pollutants that contribute to acid rain and the greenhouse effect
  16. Coal
    formed from ancient peat bogs (swamps) that were under pressure as they were covered. 300-400 million years ago

    Contributes to green house effect
  17. order of types of coal
    • Lignite (soft, used for electricity)
    • Bituminous
    • Subbituminous (harder and both used for electricity)
    • Anthracite (hardest and used for heating)
  18. Supplies the most commercial energy in the world today
  19. Crude oil
    thick liquid containing hydrocarbons that we extract from underground deposits and separate into products such as gasoline, heating oil, and asphalt
  20. Refining crude oil
    Based on boiling points, components are removed at various layers in a giant distillation column
  21. Who is the world's largest oil user?
  22. oil shale
    a solid combustible mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen

    could supplement conventional oil but has high sulfur content and processing produces toxic sludge
  23. Natural gas
    consists mostly of methane. Often found above reservoirs of crude oil.

    clean burning but releases greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane
Card Set
Nonrenewable Resources
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