Chapter 7 space terms for Mrs. Days science class

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  1. Celestial object
    Any object that exists in space, like moons, planets, stars, comets, etc.
  2. Astronomer
    A scientist who studies astronomy.
  3. Revolution
    The time it takes an object to orbit.

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  4. Rotation
    The turning of an object on its axis.

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  5. Constellation
    • - A group of stars that seem to form a distinctive pattern in the sky.
    • - The stars appear to lie close to each other and at exactly the same distance from the Earth
    • - They look close together because they lie on the same line of sight
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  6. Light year
    The distance light travels in one year, about 9.5 x 1012
  7. Apparent magnitude
    The brightness of a star as seen from earth.
  8. Asterism
    • - A star pattern within a constellation or between different constellations
    • - E.g. The big dipper in Ursa major, and Orion's belt in Orion.

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  9. Pointer stars
    • - Pointer StarsĀ are stars that are used to pinpoint other areas in the sky, such as constellations
    • - E.g. The big dippers 2 end stars are called the pointer stars because they point towards Polaris

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  10. Circumpolar
    - Consolations that are visible all year long

    - E.g. Ursa major, Ursa minor, Draco
  11. Zenith
    The star or constellation you see when you look straight up.
  12. Tides
    the alternate rising and falling of the sea, usually twice in each lunar day at a particular place, due to the attraction of the moon and sun.

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  13. Phases of the Moon
    - The monthly progression of changes in the appearance of the Moon, which results from different portions of the moons sunlit side being visible from Earth.

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  14. Lunar eclipes
    • - When the full moon passes through Earths shadow
    • - during a total Lunar eclipse the full moon passes through the umbra portion of Earths shadow so the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon
    • - This happens twice a year on average and is perfectly safe to watch

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  15. Solar eclipse
    • - When the shadow of the moon falls on to the Earths surface
    • - The moon is between the Sun and the Earth during a new moon
    • - It happens about twice a year but it can usually only be seen in a very specific often remote place on Earths surface

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  16. Why do we have seasons?
    • We have seasons because the Earth is tilted and when it spins we get diffrent amounts of light and the more concentrated the light is the hotter it is.
    • - Really concentrated light = summer, Less concentrated light = Winter

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  17. Planets
    • - We have 8 planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and NeptuneĀ 
    • - A planet is an object that orbits one or more stars, is spherical, and does not share an orbit with another object
  18. Solar system
    The collection of eight planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.
  19. Retrograde motion
    Retrograde motion is motion in the direction opposite to the movement of something else

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  20. Astronomical Unit
    • -The distance from the center of the earth to the center of the sun
    • - Also called AU's
    • - About 150 x 108
  21. Orbital radius
    The average distance between the Sun and an object orbiting the Sun is called orbital radius.
  22. Geocentric model
    • - Based on the work of Ptolemy, a Greek astronomer
    • - Model for 1500 years
    • - Stated the Earth was the center of all planetary motion, and that all planets and the sun traveled in perfect circles
  23. Heliocentric model
    • - Based on the work of Copernicus, a Polish astronomer
    • - Stated the Sun is the center of the solar system, and that planets travel around the sun in perfect circles
    • - German astronomer, J. Kepler, demonstrated that the orbits of the planets travel in ellipses
  24. Comet
    • - An object composed of rocky material, ice, and gas
    • - Come from the Kuiper belt or Oort cloud
    • - When a comet comes close to the Sun, the radiation from the sun releases the gasses and particles in the comet
    • - The wind from the comet pushes the gasses and particles away forming a tail

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  25. Asteroid
    • - A small non-spherical object believed to be debris left over from the formation of the solar system
    • - Most orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
  26. Meteroid
    A piece of rock moving through space
  27. Meteor
    A Meteoroid that hits Earths atmosphere and burns up
  28. Meteorite
    • - A meteoroid that is large enough to pass through Earths atmosphere and reach the ground without being totally burned up.
    • - Is large enough to cause damage
  29. Trans-Neptunian object
    • - Any object that circles the Sun beyond the orbit of Neptune
    • - They are located in the Kuiper belt
    • - A disc shaped group of millions of small objects orbiting the Sun
    • - Contains Pluto and other small objects that are similar in composition and size
    • - Eris is the largest object and is termed a "dwarf planet" like Pluto.
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Chapter 7 space terms for Mrs. Days science class
Chapter 7 space terms.
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