List the late developmental regions of the brain and the structures they develop into.
- diencephalon-->thalamus & hypothalamus
- mesencephalon-->brain stem:midbrain
- metencephalon-->brain stem:pons cerebellum
- myelencephalon-->brain stem:medulla oblongata
- -->spinal cord
Identify the major brain regions and give a brief list of their functions.
- Cerebrum 1. cerebral cortex
- -perception(sensory area)
- -skeletal muscle movement(motor)
- -integration of info and voluntary movement
- 2. basal ganglia
- 3. limbic system
- a. amygdala
- -emotions and memory
- b. hippocampus
- -learning and memory
- Cerebellum coordination
- 1. thalumus
- -integration center, relay for sensory & motr
- 2.pineal gland
- -melatonin secretion
- 3. hyopthalumus
- -behavioral drives
- 4. pituitary gland
- -hormone secretion
- Brain Stem 1. midbrain
- -eye movement
- 2. pons
- -relay between cerebrum and cerebellum
- 3. medulla oblongata
- -involuntary functions
- 4. reticular formation
- -muscle tone
- -pain modulation
Name and identify the meninges. What are their properties?
- dura mater -thickest
- -associated with veins that drain blood from the brain through vessels or cavities called sinuses
- arachnoid membrane(middle layer)
- -loosely tied inner layer creating the subarachnoid space
- pia mater(inner membrane)
- -adheres to brain
- -arteries can be found that supply the brain with blood
- -interstitial fluid lies between pia mater and brain
Compare grey and white matter, location, function and makeup.
- grey matter
- -Grey matter have unmylinated axons.
- -divided into the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system.
- -also make up the grey horns in vertebrae
- white matter-mylinated axons
- -aid in communication
- help transfer info between hemispheres
Trace CSF from formation through the CNS to where it leaves the CNS.
CSF is made by ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses ->travel through the lateral ventricles, third, and then forth ventricles-->the fluid bathe the spinal cord and the brain, when pressure builds up from new CSF production it leaves through the arachnoid granules.
Give functions for the the CSF.
- physical and chemical protection
- supplies nutrients
- exchange of O2 for CO2
Explain medical issues with CSF not circulating correctly.
Explain the blood brain barrier
- not quite a literal barrier. It is a highly selective permeable membrane that separates the CSF for the blood.
- CSF can leave into the blood but blood can't transfer into the CSF
- shields the brain form toxins and fluctuation in hormones, ions, and neuroactive substances such as neurotransmitters in the blood.
Explain the metabolic needs of the CNS
- The brain needs an access amount of oxygen and glucose
- -O2 can pass freely through the BBB
- -the brain use 15% of the blood pumped from the heart
- -membrane transporters move glucose from the plasma to the interstitial fluid
- -the brain consumes about 1/2 of the body's glucose
- -hypoglycemia can lead to confusion, unconsciousness, and death
Identify the region of the spinal cord for somatic sensory, motor, and autonomic functions.
- -the somatic sensory enter the spine through the posterior gray horns via the dorsal ganglia root
- -motor sensory exits the spine via the anterior grey horns
- -autonomic sensory exits the spine via the lateral grey horns
Draw and label a spinal reflex arc. Include all 5 components.
stimulus(hand gets poked)-->sensory(info travels to dorsal root ganglia)-->integration center(interneurons and the spine, not the CNS)-->command to muscle or glands-->response(moves the hand away)
Identify the lobes of the cerebrum and their functions.
- FRONTAL LOBE (think about anterior grey horn) -skeletal muscle movement
- -primary motor cortex
- -primary association area(premotor cortex)
- -prefrontal association area
- PARIETAL LOBE (think about posterior gray horn)
- -sensory info from skin, visceral, musculoskeletal system, tastes buds
- -primary somatic sensory cortex
- -sensory association area
- OCCIPITAL LOBE -vision
- -visual association
- -visual cortex
- TEMPORAL LOBE -auditory cortex
- -auditory association area
- inside cerebrum
- -gustatory cortex(taste)
- -olfactory cortex(smell)
Identify the components of the diencephalon and their functions.
- seahorse head
- THALAMUS -seahorse eye
- -integration center
- -relay station for sensory and motor info
- -all lower parts of CNS pass through
- -pretty much everything need the ok from it
- -seahorse mouth
- -center for homeostasis
- -behavioral drives
- -activates sympathetic nervous system
- -maintains BGL levels through pancreas
- -maintain body temp
- -controls osmolarity
- stimulates secretion of vasopressin
- -reproductive function
- oxytocin(for uterine and milk release)
- trophic hormone control of anterior pituitary hormones FSH and LH
- -controls food intake
- -interacts with limbic sys
- -cardiovascular control in medulla
- -secretes trophic hormones that control the release of hormone in the anterior pituitary
- PITUITARY GLAND
- -hormone secretion
- PINEAL GLAND -melatonin secretion
Recognize the basal nuclei and their general functions.
basal nuclei(ganglia) is cerebral grey matter that control movement
Define 3 functional specializations of the cerebrum.
- sensory area
- -translate sensory input into perception (awareness)
- motor area
- -skeletal movement
- association areas
- -integrate information from sensory and motor areas
- -can direct voluntary behaviors
Identify the functional areas of the cerebrum.
- -frontal association...FL
- -primary motor...FL
- -primary sensory...PL
- -visual cortex...OL
- -visual association...OL
- -auditory cortex...TL
- -auditory association...TL
- -gustatory...inner cerebrum
- -olfactory...inner cerebrum
- -wernicke's area...TL
- -Broca's area...FL
Define lateralization of the brain, give examples.
- also referred to as cerebral dominance, the understanding that the brain is not functionally symmetrical
- the area responsible for writing in the left hemisphere is not the same in the right hemisphere(analysis by touch)
the brain's ability to take sensory information and interpret it as shape and 3 dimensional objects
Name and define three major motor systems
- SKELETAL MUSCLE MOVEMENT -somatic motor movement
- NEUROENDOCRINE SIGNALS -hypothalamus and adrenal medulla
- VISCERAL RESPONSES -autonomic division
Explain REM sleep
- -occurs in the 1st stage of sleep
- -where dreaming takes place
- -brain inhibits motor neurons to skeletal muscles so we don't move in our sleep
Explain circadian rhythm and where centered
- -the body's internal clock and runs slightly longer than 24 hrs
- -found in suprachiasmatic nucleus on the hypothalamus
Compare drive, mood, and motivation.
- -increased state of arousal and alertness in the CNS
- -create goal oriented behavior
- -capable of creating disparate behavior to achieve the goal
- -like emotions but longer lasting than
- -mood disorders 4th leading illness
- motivation -internal signals that shape voluntary behaviors like eating, drinking, sex(linked to emotions)
Compare the two broad types of learning.
- associative learning -two stimuli that relate to each other(Pavlov's dogs)
- non associative learning -a change in behavior after exposure to a repeated stimulus
- -habituation filters out insignificant stimuli
- -sensitization opposite of habituation, getting ill from an apple and never wanting to eat on again
Distinguish between reflexive and declarative memory.
- reflexive is the ability to recall memory automatically, doesn't require conscious thought, due to slow repetition, includes motor skills and procedures
- declarative memory requires conscious attention, uses higher level of thinking skills, memories can be recalled verbally
- receptive aphasia-damage to Wernicke's area, unable to understand any spoken or visual information
- expressive aphasia-damage to Broca's area, unable to speak or write in normal syntax, are able to understand spoken and written language