Chapter 10

  1. Chief of state
    The role the president plays as ceremonial head of the nation that can also make the president a symbol of national unity during times of crisis
  2. Head of government
    The chief executive officer of a government—the president is the head of government in the Unites States.
  3. Natural-born citizen
    A person actually born in the U.S.
  4. Naturalized citizen
    A person, born in another country, who becomes a citizen of the United States by a procedure set by Congress
  5. 22nd Amendment
    Ratified in 1951, it limits the president to two terms in office
  6. Stewardship theory
    An expansive theory of presidential power, put forth by Theodore Roosevelt, that holds that the president can undertake any act as long as it is not prohibited by a specific provision of the Constitution or statutory law.
  7. Constitutional theory
    The concept associated with President William Howard Taft, that the president couldn’t exercise any power unless it is based on a specific constitutional provision or legislative grant.
  8. The administration
    The president plus senior officials such as Cabinet officials, undersecretaries, and the administrators and deputies of the various independent agencies
  9. Inner Cabinet
    Cabinet officers whose departments handle issues of broad national importance, including the secretaries of state, defense, and Treasury, and attorney general
  10. Outer Cabinet
    Cabinet officers whose departments deal with sharply defined programs and are subject to considerable pressure from client groups
  11. Multiple advocacy
    A system of advising the president which all sides of an issue are presented
  12. Executive Office of the President (EOP)
    Created in 1939 to serve as the managerial arm of the presidency, it includes such agencies as the National Security Council, the Office of Management and Budget, and the Council of Economic Advisers.
  13. Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
    An agency in the Executive Office of the President that provides the president with budgetary information and advice and is responsible for compiling the president’s annual budget proposal to Congress
  14. National Security Council (NSC)
    Designed to provide the president with advice and policy coordination on questions of national security. Its members include the president, vice president, secretaries of state and defense, and any other officials the president may add.
  15. Council of Advisers (CEA)
    Established by the Employment Act of 1946 as a part of the Executive Office of the President, it consists of a chairperson, usually a prominent academic economist, and two other members who have the primary task of analyzing economic issues for the president.
  16. Office of Policy Development (OPD)
    Created in 1981 as part of the Executive Office of the President, it focuses on the formulation, coordination, and implementation of domestic and economic policy and provides staff support for the Economic and Domestic Policy Councils.
  17. 25th Amendment
    Ratified in 1967, provides the mechanism for the vice president to assume the presidency in the event of a presidential disability and the selection of a replacement for the vice president should that office become vacant
  18. Presidential Succession Act of 1947
    Established the line of presidential succession after the vice president as follows: the Speaker of the House, the president pro tempore of the Senate, and the Cabinet secretaries in the order of the establishment of their departments
  19. Executive agreements
    Agreements between heads of state that, unlike treaties, do not require approval by the Senate—no clear legal distinctions between the substance of a treaty and that of an executive agreement
  20. Case Act
    Requires the secretary of state to submit to the Senate the final text of an executive agreement and allows agreements concerning sensitive national security matters to be submitted privately to the Senate Foreign Relations and House Foreign Affairs committees.
  21. Commander-in-chief clause
    Article II, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution, the clause that names the president as the civilian head of the U.S. military forces
  22. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    A congressional resolution passed in 1964 granting President Johnson the authority to undertake military activities in Southeast Asia.
Card Set
Chapter 10
govt 2305 chapter 10 vocab words