Interpersonal Chap 5

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  1. Semantic rules
    • rules that govern meaning of language, not structure
    • helps give meaning to symbols
    • misunderstandings arise when people give different meanings to symbols
  2. Equivocal Language
    • words, or word orders, phrases or expressions that have more than one accepted definition
    • eg. period
  3. Relative Words
    • word that gain meaning through comparision
    • eg. big, large, enormous 
    • eg. pain from 1-10
  4. Factual vs inferential Statements
    if we present inferences as facts, arguments ensue
  5. Static evaluation
    • tendency to view people or relationships as unchanging
    • eg. Matt IS reliable
  6. Abstract Language
    vague and unclear language
  7. Behavioural Language
    language that refers to specific things people do or say
  8. Abstraction Ladder
    • range of more or less abstract terms describing an event or object
    • eg. thanks for cleaning up - high abstract
    • thanks for sweeping, vacuuming, mopping etc..
  9. Syntactic Rules
    • Rules that govern the way symbols can be arranged as opposed to the meanings of those symbols
    • different meanings come from syntax
    • helps us appreciate syntax
  10. Pragmatic Rules
    • linguistic rules that help communicators understand how messages may be used and interpreted in a given context
    • eg. you look nice today
    • connotative, denotative meanings
  11. Denotative meaning
    dictionary meaning
  12. Connotative meaning
    • what the word/phrase means to you.
    • Our interpretation
  13. Naming and Id
    • Names shape how we act
    • People often translate foreign names in to english
    • naming groups - eg. people w/ disabilities 
    • eg. Mr, mrs, miss
  14. Convergence
    • Adapting ones speech style to that of others w/ whom communicator wants to identify. 
    • eg. LOL BRB
  15. Divergence
    • Speaking in a way that emphasizes the differences
    • eg. lawyer speaks to client w/ jargon to show expertise
  16. Deferential Language
    • speakers defer power to listeners by using 
    • hedges - im kinda, i think
    • hesitations - uh, er
    • intensifiers - really, very
    • polite forms - sir
    • tag questions - dont you think
    • disclaimers - probably shouldnt tell you but
    • rising inflections - end question on high note
    • w/o these, speakers are more competent, dynamic, and attractive (good for job interview)
    • being too powerful can be a problem
    • polite can come w/ an order - would you mind doing this?
  17. Factual
    can be verified by true/false
  18. Inferences
    conclusion arrived at from interpretation of evidence
  19. Factual vs inference
    • Fact - you forgot my bday
    • Opinion - you don't care about me
  20. Emotive Language
    • conveys speakers attitude rather than simply offering an objective description
    • to avoid conflict, describe things in neutral terms
  21. "It" statements
    • replace personal pronoun w/ it
    • reduces speakers responsibility for the statements
  22. "I" Language
    • identifies speaker as source of message
    • describes speakers reaction to anothers behavious w/o making judgements on behaviours worth
    • eg. its good to see you vs im glad to see you
  23. "But" Statements
    • cancels out the thought that precedes it 
    • face saving strategy
    • eg. your nice, but we need to stop seeing each other
  24. I and you language
    • use i to show opinion, can have a disarming effect
    • you - statement that expresses or implies judgement of other person. Judges other person, therefore puts people on the defense
    • eg you left this place a mess
  25. "You Language"
    • statement that expresses or implies judgement of other person.
    • Judges other person, therefore puts people on the defense
    • eg you left this place a mess
  26. Complete I statement
    • 1. Other persons behaviour
    • 2. Your interpretation
    • 3. Your feelings
    • 4. Your interpretation 
    • must be delivered in right way w/ right tone and facial expressions
    • Goal is explain feelings
  27. "We" Language
    • statement that implies that the issue is concern and responsibility of both sender and receiver 
    • builds constructive climate
    • focus on closeness, commonality, and cohesiveness
    • eg. we don't keep our room clean do we?
  28. Content (gender)
    • what men and women gossip about is very different
    • both think gossip of other gender is trivial
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Interpersonal Chap 5
Interpersonal Chap 5
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