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  1. single celled or multicellular organisms whose primary role on the planet is to serve as decomposers of dead plants and animals, returning them to the soil are called:
  2. list 2 unicelluar types of funig:

    list 1 multicellular fungi:
    • unicelluar:
    • yeast
    • mold

    • multicellular:
    • mushrooms
  3. although there are many types of fungi, how many are found to cause disease in humans:
    50 -300
  4. how do most exposure to pathogenic fungi occur:
    inhalation of fungal spores or by handling contaminated soil
  5. a route for invasive fungi to enter the body and infect the internal organs is the:
  6. fungal infections of overgrowth of normal flora occur in:
    mouth or vagina
  7. in addition to causing infection, fungal spores may trigger ______  response in susceptible pts., resulting in allergies to mold or mildew:
  8. fungi attack a person with a healthy immune system often distinctly from those that infect pts. who are immunocompromised.

    pts. with intact immune systems are afflicted with:

    intact immune

    • community acquire infections
    • sporotrichosis
    • blastomycosis
    • histoplasmosis
    • coccidioidomycosis

    • immunocomprommised 
    • nosocomial settings (hospital)
  9. infections caused by fungi are called:
  10. affecting the scalp, skin, nails, and mucous membranes such as the oral cavity and vagina are called:

    how are tese types of mycoses usually treated:
    • superficial mycoses (dermatophytic)
    • treated: with topical drugs
  11. affecting the internal organs, typically the lungs, brain, and digestive organs are called:

    how are these mycoses tx'ed:
    • systemic (invasive) mycoses
    • tx: agressive oral/parenteral meds (adverse effects than topical)
  12. fungi have _____________ rather than cholesterol in their cell membranes:
  13. how does the largest class of antifungals work:
    cause the fugnal plasma (ergosterol) membrane to become porous or leaky
  14. the preferred drug for systemic fungal infections since the 60's, which can cause a # of serious side effects is called:
    amphotericin B
  15. what is the MOA for amphotericin B:
    MOA: acts by binding to ergosterol in fungal cell membranes
  16. what are the adverse effects of amphotericin B:
    • ototoxicity (hearing loss, vertigo, unsteady gait, tinnitus (ringing in ears))
    • cardiac arrest
    • hypotension
    • dysrhythmias
    • phlebitis (during IV therapy)
    • nephrotoxicity
    • electrolyte imbalance (hypokalemia)
    • fever, chills, vomiting, headache
  17. how to maange pt. care for amphotericin B:

    determine if the pt is 3 things:

    monitor which 3 things:

    why do we need to monitor weight:

    how do we assess for ototoxicity:

    how do we asses for hypokalemia:
    • determine if: has renal impairment, bone marrow suppression, or pregnant
    • monitor: VSs, I&O, weight
    • monitor weight: HF, nephrotoxicity, and/or CHF
    • ototoxicity: decreased hearing, vertigo, unstady gait, tinnitus
    • hypokalemia: irregular/slow pulse, constipation, weakness, decreased UOP
  18. interfering with the biosynthesis of ergosterol, depleting the fungal cells of ergosterol, imparing their growth is the MOA of:
  19. why are systemic azoles preferred over Amphotericin B:
    they can be administered PO, and are much less toxic
  20. what are the advantages of using itraconzaole in therapy for systemic mycoses:
    • less hepatotoxic
    • given orally or IV
    • broader spectrum
  21. what are the adverse effect os azoles (8):
    • nausea/vomiting
    • anaphylaxis
    • rash
    • hepatitis (with ketaconazole- Nizoral)
    • metrorrhagia (uterine bleeding)
    • decreased testosterone production
    • gynecomastia (enlarged breast tissue in males)
    • Rx-Rx interactions leading to serious arrhythmias
  22. list 2 oral tx's that accumulate in the nail beds, allowing them to remain active for a long time:
    • itracozaole (sporanox)
    • terbinafine (lamisil)
  23. know how to manage the side effects of nystatin:
    • dont apply if contact dermatitis develops at the site where the drugs it to be applied
    • allow troches (lozonges) to dissolve completely
    • pt. shouldnt have anything to eat or drink 30 mintues after
    • remove dentures before using swish and spit or troches
    • anti-fungal vaginal suppositories should be inserted high into the vagina and the pt. should remain recumbent for 15 minutes after
    • with topical anti fungals, report any redness, rashs
  24. biocidal chemicals used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores are called:
  25. nonliving agents that infect bacteria, plants, and animals, that contain none of the cellular organelles neccesary for self-survival that are present in living organisms are called:

    • cant survive independently
    • needs to get into cells to reproduce and cause an infection
  26. the neccessary information needed for viral replication are found in which 2 forms:
    • RNA
    • DNA
  27. what is the preferred target that the HIV virus attaches to once it enters the body:
    CD4 receptor on T4 (helper) lymphocytes
  28. the virus uncoats and the genetic material of HIV, single stranded RNA, enters the host cell. HIV converts its RNA strand to double-stranded DNA using the viral enzyme:
    reverse transcriptase

    it may remain in host DNA for years before it becomes activted to produce more viral particles (latent peroid)
  29. the viral enzyme _____ cleaves some proteins associated with the HIV DNA and enablies the virion to infect other T4 lymphocytes:

    • the this viral DNA is activated, new viron particles are produced and they create holes in the helper T4's cell membranes as they bud and exit the cell.
    • this budding stimulates an immune response, but too late to prevent the infection
  30. because of their "backward" or reverse , the HIV viriuses are called retroviruses, and the drugs used to treat HIV infections are called:

    • because HIV replicates so quickly, drug resistance is very common.
    • stopping the very expensive drugs quicly leads to a viral resurgence.
    • full cure isnt possible but viral replication can be decreased
  31. list the 7 viral infections for which there are anti-viral drugs:
    • HSV
    • HIV
    • CMV
    • Epstein-Barr
    • Herpes zoster
    • RVS
    • influenza
  32. what is the MOA for antiviral for herpesviruses:
    preventing DNA synthesis, decreases the duration and severity of acute herpes episodes
  33. when does the influenza vaccine start to work and how long after its given does it confer immunity:
    adequate immunity is achieved about 2 weeks after vaccination and lasts for several months up to a year
Card Set
viruses and anti-viral durgs
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